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SALAMIS IN THE ISLAND OF CYPRUS.
BY ALEXANDER PALMA DI CESNOLÀ, F.S.A.,
ruins had failed to find the proper place for successful explorations. I may explain here why I sought the site of the tombs in Salamis before commencing any other diggings. The manner I adopted was that of my predecessors. Be it noticed, that there are two methods of exploring the antique world—digging in the ruins of the cities, and digging in the tombs of their inhabitants. Tombs are found generally near ruins. Digging in ruins is always uncertain, and can only be carried out at great expense, which sometimes may be continued for months without producing anything of importance; but if the excavator should find but one fine object, it will pay more than all the expenses incurred. "When digging in ruins I always sunk shafts at the spots which bore indications of temples, palaces, or other large buildings. These shafts were sunk a few feet apart, and were made more or less deep, the depth of each being dependent on the men finding rock or virgin earth. When either of these substances was reached, I knew there was no hope for researches in these directions; therefore, abandoning the pits, I tried other parts and dug again. When the shafts disclosed a foundation or pavement, I continued working in the direction indicated, feeling sure that something would surely be found there. I have many times hoped to find a famous temple and other remains, and was often ready to draw plans, and began to take measures for the elucidation of these chateaux d'Espagne, but all of these visions ended in nothing except foundations of common buildings. It is only an excavator who can enter into my feelings. At the moment of expectation, the excitement of a digger can only be compared to that of a gambler. I must, however, say that if a digger has many disappointments, he has great pleasures and much satisfaction in the progress of his work, and this satisfaction I experienced in mine, especially at Salamis. Searching for tombs was conducted nearly in the same manner as among the ruins, the only change in the manner of seeking being due to the different constructions of the tombs, and this depended upon the people who had buried their dead in them, for of course the antiquities were in accord with the people to whom they had belonged. In digging in the tombs I always recovered antiquities to the full value of the expenses incurred, because the objects found are generally gold. My system of work was generally to divide the diggers into small parties of three or four each to work in the tombs, and one party in the ruins, I myself remaining with the latter, ready to run to the spot when my men opened a fresh tomb. In this manner also, if I found it necessary to have more men in the ruins, I could easily call for those who were working in the tombs. To the workmen I generally paid the fixed wages of one shilling a day, paying them every Saturday also for the objects they had found, at a rate fixed beforehand by my foreman and the workmen. The gold was paid for by weight, adding sometimes a little more when there was art in the work. Under this system I continued digging for about three years. I will take this opportunity of stating that all this time of my diggings, I was never cheated, nor had I any trouble with these poor workmen (as many excavators in other countries have had), but, on the contrary, I received from them most faithful work; and, on their part, they had confidence in me. If I had occasion for complaints, it was not against Cypriote people; and it must be remembered that, although I always employed men of both religions, orthodox and Mahommedan, I could not say which of the two was more faithful. I had great confidence in men of both classes, and have sometimes left in their hands large sums of money, and never experienced misgivings about its safety; and I do not think there is any other island or country where the people are more honest or trustworthy than the folks of Cyprus are. When I parted from them it was with great regret. In October and November of 1876, I was digging at Timbo, Ormidia, and other villages, and I collected in those places a very large number of vases and fine specimens of glass. It was at this time that I sent two parties of five men each, the one to Kurium, and the other to Soli; but they came back with very few spoils of the spade and pick. This was the last time I sent out independent parties of diggers, for I found it better to discontinue this system, and to keep all the men with me. I returned home to Larnaka for the winter, and began to pack the relics which had then been unearthed for conveyance to Mr. Lawrence in England. My first cargo consisted of six large cases despatched in an Austrian Lloyd's steamer. For the success attending this shipment, I am indebted to Messrs. Osmiani Brothers. At Alexandria the cases were passed to another
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