Selected and rare materials, excerpts and observations from ancient, medieval and contemporary authors, travelers and researchers about Cyprus.
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to the right, holding a garland or chaplet, at its feet an uncertain object. In the field, the inscription EAET. 5-8ths inch long. Cornelian.
60. Oval intaglio gem, from a finger-ring. An eagle, regardant, to the right, holding a garland or crown, and

1 See fig. 53, facing p. 44.

perched upon a rock between two palm-branches. 3-8ths inch long. Jasper. (See Plate xv, fig. 88.)61. Oval scarabǽoid, not pierced, probably for setting in a ring or fleurette. The subject is a hippocamp. 3-4ths inch long. Calcined steatite. (See Plate xv, fig. 60.)
62. Oval gem. The subject appears to be a lobster or shrimp. This is of fairly early Greek workmanship, and may be referred to about the second century before the Christian era. 3-8ths inch long. Cornelian. (See Plate xv, fig. 85.)
63. Oval for setting. A seven-stringed lyre. The sounding board carved in the form of a small animal, probably a dog, lying curled up. Half-inch long. Amethyst. (See Plate xv, fig. 87.)
64. Oval intaglio, engraved on both sides with uncertain figures or letters of mystical value, some of which are not unlike Cypriote syllables, but they cannot be deciphered. 5-8ths inch, the edge bevelled. Cornelian.
65. Oval engraved gem. Two lines of Roman numerals, perhaps of mystic or magical import. The numbers are—x, vi, in, II. This edge of the engraved stone is-frilled or. engrailed. Half-inch long. Agate. (See Plate xv, fig. 84.)
66. Oval. The Temple of Paphos, as figured and described in a former part of the work.1 3-8ths inch long, set in a gold ring. Cornelian.

1 See fig. 52, facing p. 44.



HE number of objects which I discovered at Salamis and other sites composed of chalcedony and other hard stones is not very large, but, considering the rarity of such antiquities, my collection is fairly well supplied with them. The use of chalcedony is, we are told, very ancient. The oldest dynasties of the Egyptian Empire have contributed many objects formed of it to the museums of Europe. The name of this substance is believed to be derived from Chalcedon, in Bithynia, where the first specimens of the material were procured. According to some writers, it is a kind of agate, with milky veins and cloudy spots in it. Others describe it as a stalactite of the quartz species, of a dull grey tint, with blue and purple veins and blotches. Another class of writers consider that chalcedony is a species of quartz, semi-pellucid, of a whitish, bluish, smokey-grey, or yellow and red colour. It is two and a half times heavier than water. A modern author on precious stones states that chalcedony is a kind of quartz: according to Fuchs, pure quartz with opal disseminated through it. This stone is usually of a greyish colour, but sometimes occurs milky white, pinkish, or of a smalt blue; in the latter case it is called sapphirine. It is never found crystallised. Some Indian varieties are

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