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Roger De Hoveden The Annals vol.1., From A.D. 732 To A.D. 1180.


Sir John Froissart's Chronicles of England, France, Spain and the Ajoining Countries from the latter part of the reign of Edward II to the coronation of Henry IV in 12 volumes 

Chronicles of Enguerrand De Monstrelet (Sir John Froissart's Chronicles continuation) in 13 volumes 

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Roger De Hoveden
The Annals vol.1., From A.D. 732 To A.D. 1180.
page 257

empress fled across the river Thame, which \vas frozen, clothed in white garments. The reflection of the snow and the similarity deceiving the eyes of the besiegers, she escaped to the castle of Wallingford ; upon wrhich, Oxford was at length surrendered to the king. In the year of grace 1143, being the eighth year of the reign of king Stephen, that king was present at a council held at London in the middle of Lent. For, at this period, no respect was paid by those who plundered to either the clergy or the Church of God, and, whether clerks or laymen, they were equally taken prisoners and held to ransom. Upon this, the bishop of Winchester, the Roman legate, held a council at London, which at the time was absolutely necessary for the safety of the clergy. At this council it was decreed, that no one who should violently lay hands upon a clerk could possibly receive absolution from anyone, not even from the pope himself, and appearing in his presence. In consequence of this, a slight gleam of serenity, with great difficulty, shone forth at last upon the clergy. In the same year, the king seized Geoffrey de Mandeville,16 at his court at Saint Alban's, more in retribution for the wickedness of the earl, than according to the law of nations ; more from necessity than from virtuous motives. For, if he had not done so, through the perfidy of this earl, whom from a baron he had created an earl, he would have been deprived of his kingdom. Accordingly, in order that the king might give him his liberty, he surrendered to him the tower of London and the castles of Waldcn and Plessis. In consequence of this, the above-named earl, being stripped of his possessions, attacked the abbey of Saint Benedict at Ramsey, expelled the monks, and introduced his plunderers, turning the church of God into a den of thieves. He was a man of the greatest prowess, but of the greatest perverseness towards God ; of extreme activity in worldly matters, but extremely neglectful towards God. In this year, shortly before the festival of the Nativity, the bishop of Winchester, and soon after, the arehbishop of Canterbury, repaired to Rome, to treat for the legateship, pope Innocent being dead, and having been succeeded by Celestinus. In the year of grace 1144, being the ninth vear of the 1S His name really was William. 246 ANNALS OF B0GEE DE HOVEDEN. A.D. 1144.

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