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FRANCIS LANCELOTT, ESQ. Queens of England. Vol.1.

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FRANCIS LANCELOTT, ESQ.
Queens of England. Vol.1.
page 221



continued intolerable monopoly of salt, for the benefit of the crown. This mode of raising money induced Edward to declare that his adversary reigned by salic law, and, in retaliation, the French King nick-named Edward the Wool Merchant. Having sent an army under the brave Earl of Derby to Guienne, in June, 1345, and endeavoured, though without success, to again make Flanders the scat of war, Edward resolved to proceed in person, with a powerful force, to France. Accordingly, he named Philippa and their son, Lionel, then seven years old, regents during his absence, with the Karl of Kent as their adviser and assistant in public matters, and accompanied by the heroic Prince Edward, then in his sixteenth year, who was burning to win his spurs in France, sailed with a powerful fleet from Southampton, in July 1346. On reaching France in safety, the English monarch and his son, Edward, the renowned Black Prince, after a series of successes, obtained the great and memorable victory over Philip, known as the battle of Cressy, on the twenty-sixth of August. In this, one of the most glorious triumphs ever achieved by English arms, John, Duke of Bohemia, James, King of Majorca, Ralph, Duke of Lorraine (Sovereign Princes), a number of French nobles, together with thirty thousand men of inferior rank, were slain, whilst the loss of the English was quite insignificant. The crest of the Duke of Bohemia—three ostrich feathers, with the motto, uIck Dim" (I serve)—was, in memory of this victory, adopted by the Prince of Wales, and has ever since been borno by his successors. A few weeks after the battle of Cressy, and whilst Edward was making extensive preparations for the siege, or rather blockade, of Calais, David of Scotland, instigated by the French King, suddenly crossed the border with hostile forces, and ravaged the northern counties with considerable success, Queen Philippa, who, since the departure of her royal lord, had resided at Windsor, where, on the twenty-first of July, she gave birth to the Princess Margaret, on hearing of this invasion, went to New castle-upon-Tyne, and hastily assembled an army of about twelve thousand men, from all parts of the country. The Scotch King, on learning that the English had assembled in arms, sent a messenger, informing the Queen that, if her army came outside the town, he would give them battle. Philippa accepted this challenge, marshalled her troops on an eminence near Nevil's Cross, and, in a spirited address, urged them, in the name of God and their King, to fight valiantly ; and recommending them to the protection of heaven and St. George, retired to the town whilst the battle was being fought. The action took place on the seventeenth of October. The English fought bravely, and after a sanguine contest, in whieli fifteen thousand Scots were slain, gained a decisive victory. The Scotch King, with two arrows hanging in his body, and whilst fighting with desperation, was made prisoner by John Copeland, a Northumbrian "varlet," who instantly rode off with his royal prize, first to the Castle of Ogle, and thence to that of Bamborough. On learning that the royal prisoner had been hastily conveyed she knew not whither, Philippa demanded him to be given up to her ; but the proud Copeland answered, that only to his liege lord, King Edward, would he surrender the prisoner. This reply greatly annoyed the Queen, but it being quite in accordance with the spirit of feudality, she wrote to her royal lord at Calais, and he sent for Copeland, cordially welcomed him, ordered him to deliver the King of Scots to Philippa, and, as a remuneiation for his signal services, made him a knight banneret, with an income of five hundred pounds a-year. After tarrying two days at Calais, Copeland returned to England, and, attended by his friends and neighbours, carried the King of Scotland to York, where he presented him, in the King's name, to Philippa, who displayed a highly-commendable magnanimity on the occasion, and assured Copeland that, although he had refused to obey her delegated authority, ho deserved praise for his great valour in the battle-field, whilst his having so cheerfully complied with the in


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