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FRANCIS LANCELOTT, ESQ. Queens of England. Vol.1.

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FRANCIS LANCELOTT, ESQ.
Queens of England. Vol.1.
page 538



slie ordered mass to be said in herchiim-Istill unalienated by her two predecessors, ber ; when, at the elevation of the host, ! she cast ber eyes upwards, and, at the benediction, bowed her head and died. Her friend and kinsman, Cardinal Pole, who also had long been dying of an intermitting fever, survived lier but twenty-two hours. He had reached his fifty-ninth, she her forty-second year. The royal body was embalmed, and lay in state, in St. James's Chapel, till the thirteenth of December, when it was conveyed, with becoming solemnity and pomp, to Westminster Abbey, where it was placed in a hearse, watched the night through by a hundred poor men in black, bearing lighted torches, and the next morning, after mass and offerings (Mary's armour, sword, helmet, target, banner, and standard, being included amongst the offerings), as if she had been a king, and a funeral sermon, interred, with the usual formalities, in Henry the Seventh's Chapel. King Philip was not present at Mary's death or burial, but he had her requiem performed in the cathedral of Brussels, on the day of her interment ; and, what is remarkable, on the same day was performed the burial service of his father, the Emperor, and of his aunt, the Queen of Hungary. Mary made her will in March, 1558. In it she names her husband and Cardinal Pule as her executors, and states that she made it, being in good health, but foreseeing the great dangers which, by God's ordinance, remain to all women in their travail of child. Then follows several bequests which do honour to her memory. She desires that an hospital be provided in London, and endowed with lands and possessions of the yearly value of four hundred marks, for the relief, succour, and help of the poor, impotent, and aged soldiers, and chiefly those that be fallen in extreme poverty, having no pension, or other pretence of living, or are become hurt or maimed in the wars of this realm, or in any service for the defence and surety of their prince and of their country, or of the dominions thereunto belonging. To this and other purposes of active charity she wills that the church property, which she found shall be devoted. She requests that the remains of her beloved mother, Katherine of Arragon, shall be exhumed from their burial-place at Peterborough, and re-interred by her side ; and that honourable tombs be erected to their memories. Some months later, in a codicil, she prays her husband " to show himself as a father or as a brother in the care of this realm," and admonishes her successor to " fulfil this will according to her true mind and intent, for which he or she will, no doubt, be rewarded by God, and avoid his divine justice pronounced and executed against such as be violators and breakers of wills and testaments." She evidently judged that her will ; would not be executed, and she judged aright, for, after her death, no attention was paid to any part of it, nor was any monument raised to her me mory. We conclude the memoirs of our first Queen Regnant—a Queen whose character has evidently been over-blackened by general history, and which we have endeavoured to portray with an impartial pen, in most cases simply relating facts, and leaving the reader to form his own conclusion—by a glance at the customs, manners, and social condition of the nation under her sovereignty, and during the preceding years of the sixteenth century. In this age, few persons lived on their capital, and the profits made by the merchants in the course of their trade were great. Under Mary, the first treaty of commerce was negotiated with Russia ; and Edward the Sixth's law, prohibiting any one from making cloth who had not served a seven years' apprenticeship to the business, was repealed. We may form a notion of the little progress made in arts and refinement about this time, from one circumstance. A man of no less rank than the comptroller of'Edward the Sixth's household paid only thirty shillings a year of our present money for his house in Channel Row ; yet labour, and provisions, and, consequently, houses, were onlv about a third of the present price, pfolinshed, who lived in the reign of Elizabeth, iiiys, "In the reigns of Edward the


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