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MATTHEW OF WESTMINSTER
The flowers of history, especially such as relate to the affairs of Britain. Vol. II. A.D. 1066 to A.D. I307.

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MATTHEW OF WESTMINSTER
The flowers of history, especially such as relate to the affairs of Britain. Vol. II. A.D. 1066 to A.D. I307.
page 563



also killing even some of our sailors, be caused some ships belonging to our English subjects to be burnt ; and he proceeded further without delay, denying us homage and fealty, speaking both for himself and for every one else who might be an inhabitant of his kingdom, in formal letters proceeding from himself, couched in offensive language, and containing, among other things, words of defiance. Moreover, having levied a large army, he, in a hostile manner, by himself and his followers, invaded our counties of Northumberland, Cumberland, and Westmoreland, belonging to the kingdom of England, making, in a most inhuman manner, a great slaughter of our subjects, burning monasteries, churches, and towns, and ravaging the country in every direction, slaying with the sword infante in the cradle, and women lying in travail, and, what is most horrible to be heard, from some women they barbarously cut off the breasts, and blocking up the doors of one school, and applying fire to it, they burnt some young clerks who had just received the first tonsure, and were learning grammar in the school, to the number of about two hundred. We, too, seeing such injuries, insults, crimes, and atrocities committed with a view to despoiling us of our hereditary rights, and to the treacherous destruction of our people, and being unwilling, out of consideration for our oath, by which we are bound to the maintenance of the rights of the crown of our kingdom, to connive at the aforesaid crimes any longer, or to leave our rights undefended, as we could by law chastise John himself, then king of Scotland, and his nation, which was subject to us, and the kingdom of Scotland also, which from the most ancient times, as has been shown above, had been in feudal subjection to us and our progenitors, we, I say, for the beforementioned causes, put forth the might of our power over the aforesaid John, and the kingdom, of Scotland, as we had a right to do, and we proceeded against them as enemies and traitors to us. Therefore, we, having subdued the kingdom of Scotland, and having by the right of supremacy reduced it under our dominion, the aforesaid John, formerly king of Scotland, of his own accord, did wholly and absolutely render up into our hands the kingdom of Scotland as he held it de facto, publicly acknowledging his aforesaid treasons and wickednesses before us and our nobles.. After which event, the aforesaid earls and barons, and chieftains and communities of the kingdom of Scotland, to whom we had granted our royal


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