Rene's Tournament Book
· Arms and armor
· Customs, rules and ceremonies
· The first day of the tournament
· The second day of the tournament
· Responsibilities of the judges
· Miscellaneous other rules
the very noble and powerful prince, my very dear, beloved and only brother
Charles of Anjou, Count of Maine, Mortain and Guise:
I, Rene of Anjou your brother, want you to know that because I have long
known you to take pleasure in hearing new stories and tales, I have decided
to make for you a little treatise, the longest that I know of, on the
form and way in which I think a tourney ought to be undertaken at court
or elsewhere in the marches of France, as certain princes like to have
it done. I have taken this form mostly from that used for organizing tourneys
in Germany and on the Rhine, but also from the customs that they follow
in Flanders and Brabant, and in the same way from the ancient customs
that we used to follow in France, which I have found written down in manuscripts.
From these three customs I have taken what seems good to me, and have
made and compiled from them a fourth way of holding a tourney, as you
will see, if it pleases you, by what follows hereafter.
Hereafter follows the form and manner in which a tourney ought to be undertaken.
And in order to organize and carry out this tourney well and honorably
and in the right way, you must keep to the order hereafter described.
Whoever wishes to hold a tourney, whether he is a prince, or a less high
baron, or a knight banneret, he ought to do it as is explained hereafter.
That is to say:
That the aforesaid prince ought first to send secretly to the prince to
whom he wishes to present the sword, to find out whether or not he intends
to accept, and in order to arrange the appropriate public ceremonies if
he wishes to accept. The prince, having before him all his barons, or
at least a great number of knights and squires, ought to call the king
of arms of his country, because it appertains to him before all other
kings of arms; and if he is not present, in his absence, some notable
herald. And the prince ought to give him a rebated sword such as is used
in a tourney, and say the words that follow.
But in order to better explain the custom, here take the Duke of Brittany
for the appellant on the one hand, and the Duke of Bourbon for the defendant
on the other. And I have used blazons made up for my own amusement for
the blazons necessary for this tourney.
Thus follow the words that the Duke of Brittany, appellant, should say
to the king of arms while giving him a tourney sword like the one drawn
King of arms, take this sword and go to my cousin the Duke of Bourbon
and tell him for me that on account of his great personal courage, valor,
and chivalry, I have sent him this sword to signify that I wish to hold
a tourney and bouhort of arms against him, in the presence of ladies and
damsels, and many others, on the day and time named, and in a place suitable
and convenient for this. And for this tourney I suggest four judges, chosen
from eight knights and squires, that is to say so and so for knights,
and so and so for squires; these judges will arrange the time and place
and prepare the lists.
[picture caption]Hereafter is shown the way and manner in which the Duke
of Brittany, appellant, gives the sword to the king of arms to go and
present it to the Duke of Bourbon, defendant.
And you ought to know that the appellant lord always ought to choose half
the judges: that is, two from the country of the defendant lord, and the
other two from his own country or elsewhere, at his pleasure: and he ought
right willingly to choose the judges from the most notable, honorable
and ancient barons, knights and squires that he can find, who have seen
the most and travelled and who are reputed wiser and more knowledgeable
about feats of arms than other men.
Then the king of arms should go to the Duke of Bourbon, defendant, and
before a great company and in the most honorable place, except for holy
ground, that he can find, he should present the sword to the Duke, holding
it by the point, and say to him:
Very noble and powerful prince and redoubted lord, the very noble and
powerful prince and my redoubted lord the Duke of Brittany, your cousin,
has sent me to you on account of the great chivalry and prowess that he
knows is in your very noble person. In all love and friendship, and not
out of any ill will, he wishes to hold a tourney and bouhort of arms before
ladies and damsels; and to signify this he sends you this sword, which
is appropriate for this."
[picture caption]Hereafter is portrayed the way and manner in which the
king of arms presents the sword to the Duke of Bourbon, defendant.
And after the king of arms has presented the sword to the Duke of Bourbon
and if the Duke has undertaken such an affair or obligation that he cannot
carry out or undertake the tourney, then he may excuse himself in the
I thank my cousin for the offer that he has made to me, and on account
of the great good that he believes is in me, I wish well that it pleased
God that it could be so; but there is much I must think of. And on the
other hand there are in this kingdom many other lords who merit this honor
more than I, and know well how to arrange a tourney; which is why I pray
you to excuse me to my cousin. For I have affairs to bring to an end that
closely touch my honor, which necessarily I must finish before any other
tasks. So, may it please him to find my excuse agreeable, for I would
do anything else that pleased him.
Item, if he agrees to participate in the tourney, he should take the sword
from the hand of the king of arms and say:
I accept not out of ill will, but to please my cousin, and to amuse the
And after he has taken the sword, the king of arms should say to him these
Very noble and very powerful prince and very redoubted lord, the very
noble and very powerful prince and my very redoubted lord the Duke of
Brittany, your cousin, sends you here the blazons of eight knights and
squires on a roll of parchment, so that you may choose from these eight
the four of them whom you would like to be the judges.
Then the king of arms should give the Duke the roll of parchment, and
the Duke should study the blazons as long as he likes, and then should
answer the king of arms:
As for the judges whose blazons you have shown me, the lords of such and
such places, please me well for the knights, and the lords of such and
such places for the squires. And as to this you will carry them letters
of credence from me. Also I want you to ask my cousin the Duke of Brittany
to have them write on their part that they are willing to accept, and
also to tell me the day and place of the tourney as soon as possible.
[picture caption]Hereafter is shown the way and manner in which the king
of arms gives the eight blazons of the knights and esquires to the Duke
Note that immediately after the Duke of Bourbon has chosen the four judges,
the king of arms must send two heralds in all diligence, one to the appellant
lord to get the letters to the judges, and if he thinks that the judges
live far apart, another to ask them if they will gather together in some
town, which they may choose, so that he may honorably present the letters
of the lords appellant and defendant.
This said, the Duke of Bourbon ought to give the king of arms two ells
of cloth of gold, or velvet, or at least figured crimson satin, on which
he should place a large piece of painted parchment with the two principal
lords of the tourney, on horseback as if at the tourney, armed and with
crests. He should attach the parchment to the piece of cloth of gold,
velvet or satin. And the king of arms should put it on as if it was a
cloak knotted on the right shoulder, and with the permission of the Duke
he should go to the judges to ask if they will accept the office of judge.
And when he comes before them with the letters from the two Dukes appellant
and defendant, with the piece of cloth on his shoulders, and attached
to it the parchment on which are painted the lords on horseback, armed
and with crests, as is shown hereafter, he should present the letters
from the appellant and the defendant to them. And these letters describe
the things above, and also contain credentials for the judges of the tourney
undertaken by the Dukes.
[picture caption]Hereafter is shown the way and manner in which the king
of arms shows the lords appellant and defendant to the four judges, and
presents them with the letters of the lords, having the cloth of gold
on his shoulder and the painted parchment showing the two captains.
Then he should say to them the words that follow hereafter:
Noble and redoubted knights, honored and gentle squires, the very noble
and powerful princes the Dukes of Brittany and Bourbon, my very redoubted
lords, greet you, and have charged me to deliver these letters of credence
from both of them, as you will know as soon as you have read these letters,
which you may do whenever it pleases you.
After they have read or had read their letters, and when they have asked
for and heard the letters of credence, the king of arms should say to
Noble and redoubted knights, honored and gentle squires, I have come before
you to advise, request and notify you on behalf of the very noble and
very powerful princes and my very redoubted lords the Dukes of Brittany
and Bourbon that if you wish to please them you will take charge of organizing,
and be judges, of a very noble tourney and bouhort of arms that has recently
been undertaken by them. These lords have agreed together to choose you
over all others on account of the great fame of your valor, the renown
of your intelligence and the praise of the virtues that have long endured
in your noble persons. So, do not refuse, for much good may come of it:
And first, all may know which men are come of ancient nobility, by the
way they bear arms and crests.
Second, those who have failed to behave honorably will be chastised so
that the next time they will be wary of doing that which is not fitting
Third, each one who takes up the sword will get good exercise of arms.
And fourth, by chance it may happen that some young knight or squire,
by doing well, will get mercy, grace, or an increase of love from his
very gentle lady and mistress.
So, my noble and redoubted knights, honored and gentle squires, I ask
you once again on behalf of my very redoubted lords that for all these
reasons you will agree to take charge, in such a manner that by your intelligence,
organization and conduct, the tourney will take place in such a way that
fame and widespread rumor will go out to sustain nobility and increase
honor, so that, if it pleases God, every gentleman will wish from thenceforward
to practice the exercise of arms more often.
Then the judges, if they wish to accept the offer, should answer in the
form and manner that follows:
We humbly thank our very redoubted lords for the honor they do to us,
for the love they bear to us, and for the faith they have in us. And although
there are in this kingdom many other knights and squires who know better
than us how to organize and put in order such a noble deed as this tourney,
nonetheless to obey our very redoubted lords, we offer with a good heart
to obey and serve them, and accept the charge that has been put forth
before us. And we will do it as well and as loyally as possible in this
world, using all our intelligence and strength so loyally that if by chance
we err, from which God protect us, it will be more from innocence than
from vice. And we will submit always to the correction, good will and
pleasure of our redoubted lords.
Then the king of arms should thank the judges, and ask them, as judges,
to choose the day and place of the tourney, so that he can have it cried
appropriately. And all the judges ought to come together in council, to
choose the day and the place, so that the king of arms can begin to cry
the tourney in the places appropriate; that is to say:
First, at the court of the lord appellant; second, at the court of the
lord defendant; and third, at the court of the king and anywhere else
that the judges advise. And if the king of arms cannot or will not go
in person to the courts of other lords, to cry the tourney, he may send
a pursuivant to each court to do it. But the king of arms must go personally
to the court of the two lords, captains of the tourney, and also to the
Hereafter follows the form and manner in which you should cry the tourney
And first of all, the king of arms should be accompanied by three or four
heralds and pursuivants when he cries the festival of the tourney in the
form and manner that is described hereafter.
[picture caption]Hereafter is shown the way and manner in which the king
of arms, with the cloth of gold on his shoulder and the two captains and
the arms of the judges painted at the four corners of the parchment, cries
the tourney, and how the pursuivants give a little shield with the arms
of the judges to all who wish to take part.
Immediately after the judges have accepted the charge, the king of arms
should have the arms of the judges painted at the four corners of the
parchment; that is to say those of the two knights above, and those of
the two squires below.
And first, one of the pursuivants of the company of the king of arms,
who has a very loud voice, ought to cry, taking three great breaths and
three great pauses:
Hear Ye, Hear Ye, Hear Ye
Let all princes, lords, barons, knights and squires of the marches of
the Isle de France, Champagne, Flanders, Ponthieu first of seignories,
Vermandois and Artois, Normandy, Aquitaine and Anjou, Brittany and Berry,
and also Corbie, and all others of whatever marches that are in this kingdom
and all other Christian kingdoms, who are not banished or enemies of the
king our lord, may God save him, know that on such a day and such a month,
in such a place in such a town, there will be a very great festival of
arms and a very noble tourney with maces of one measure and rebated swords,
in appropriate armor, with crests, coats of arms and horses covered with
the arms of the noble tourneyers, as is the ancient custom;
Of which tourney the captains are the very noble and powerful princes
and my very redoubted lords the Duke of Brittany appellant and the Duke
of Bourbon defendant;
And to make this better known, all princes, lords, barons, knights and
squires of the above marches, and others from whatsoever nations they
are, not banished or enemies of the king, our lord, who wish to tourney
to acquire honor, may carry these little shields that will be given out
presently, so that everyone may know who are the tourneyers. And anyone
can have them who wants: the little shields are quartered with the arms
of the four knights and squires who are judges of the tourney.
And at the tourney there will be noble and rich prizes given by ladies
Moreover, I announce to all of you princes, lords, barons, knights and
squires who intend to participate in the tourney that you must come to
the inns the fourth day before the day of the tourney, and display your
arms at the windows, on pain of not being allowed to participate; and
this I tell you on behalf of my lords the judges, so please excuse me.
Hereafter follows the fashion and style in which ought to be made the
harness for the head, body and arms, shields and mantlings that one calls,
in Flanders and in Brabant and in those noble countries where tourneys
are commonly held, mantlings or achievements, coats of arms, saddles,
trappers and horsecloths for horses, maces and swords for tourneying.
And to show you better, here below is drawn one piece after another as
it should be.
That is to say, first the crest ought to be mounted on a piece of cuir
boulli, which ought to be well padded to a finger's thickness, or more
on the inside; and the piece of leather ought to cover all the top of
the helm, and be covered with a mantling, decorated with the arms of whoever
carries it. And on the mantling above the top of the helm should be the
crest, and around it should be a twisted roll of whatever colors the tourneyer
wishes, about the thickness of an arm or more or less at his pleasure.
Item, the helm is in the fashion of a bascinet or a capeline, except that
the visor is different, as is painted below. And to better explain the
style of the crest, the cuir boulli and the helm, they are shown below
in three ways.
Hereafter follows the fashion and style of the bascinet, the cuir boulli
and the crest.
Item, the body harness is like a cuirass or like the foot harness that
one calls a tonnelet. And also you may well tourney in a brigandine if
you wish; but in whatever kind of body harness you wish to tourney, it
is necessary that the harness be big and ample enough in all places that
you may wear a pourpoint or corset underneath. It is necessary that the
pourpoint be padded to three fingers' thickness on the shoulders and the
length of the arms up to the neck, and on the back also, because the blows
of maces and swords fall more frequently on these places than elsewhere.
And to see the principal and best fashion for tourneying, drawn here below
is a perforated cuirass in the best and most appropriate fashion and style
possible for the tourney.
Hereafter is shown the fashion and style of the cuirass and the style
of the arm armor appropriate for tourneying. That is to say, rerebraces,
vambraces, and gauntlets; which vambraces and rerebraces are made to fit
easily together, and there are two kinds, of which one is white harness
and the other is cuir boulli, which two kinds of white harness and cuir
boulli harness are painted below.
Hereafter follows the style and form of the rerebrace and the vambrace
of white harness or cuir boulli.
The form and fashion of the gauntlets is as you can see below in the figure.
Hereafter is shown the fashion and style of the gauntlets.
Item, the rebated sword should be in the form and manner hereafter painted,
and similarly the mace.
Hereafter is shown the fashion and style of the sword and the mace.
Of the size and fashion of the swords and maces, there is nothing much
to say except about the length and width of the blade. It should be four
fingers wide, so that it cannot pass through the eyeslot of the helm,
and the two edges ought to be as wide as a finger's thickness. And so
that it will not be too heavy, it should be hollowed out in the middle
and rebated in front and all in one piece from the crosspiece to the end,
and the crosspiece should be so short that it can just block any blow
that by chance descends or comes sliding down the length of the sword
to the fingers. And it ought to be as long as the arm with the hand of
the man who carries it, and the mace similarly. The mace ought to have
a little rondel well riveted in front of the hand to protect it. And you
may, if you wish, attach a light chain, braid or cord to your sword or
mace around the arm, or to your belt, so that if it escapes your hand
you can recover it before it falls to the ground.
As to the fashion of the pommel of the sword, this is at your pleasure.
And the weight of the maces and the weight of the swords ought to be checked
by the judges on the vigil of the day of the tourney. And those maces
that are not of unreasonable weight or length should be stamped with a
hot iron by the judges.
The leg harness is in the same style that you wear for war, without any
difference, except that the smallest guards are the best, and sollerets
are very useful against the points of spurs.
The shortest spurs are more convenient than the long ones, because they
won't get pulled or twisted off in the press.
The surcoat ought to be made like that of a herald, except that there
should not be a pleat over the body, in order to better display the wearer's
coat of arms.
In Brabant, Flanders and Hainault, and in those countries near the Germanies,
they are accustomed to arms themselves differently for a tourney. They
take a demi-pourpoint of two layers, not more, padded in the back and
over the abdomen; and then over this a bracer, four fingers thick and
stuffed with cotton. Over this they put on vambraces and rerebraces of
cuir boulli, reinforced with five or six small rods the thickness of a
finger, glued on, that run the length of the arm just to the joints. And
for the shoulders and the elbow, the rerebraces and vambraces are made
like those shown above, except that they are bigger and heavier; and they
are well padded in front. And a double layer of cloth holds the rerebrace
and the vambrace together like a mail sleeve. Over all this they wear
a light brigandine with a perforated breast like that shown below. And
as for the head armor, they have a great bascinet with a camail without
a visor, and they attach the camail under the brigandine all around, to
the breast and on the shoulders with strong laces. And over all this they
put a great helm made all in one piece of cuir bouilli and perforated
below, the size of a wooden trencher, and the eyeslot is barred with iron
in a grid three fingers square, which is attached in front by a chain
to the breast of the brigandine, so that you may hang it from the saddle
to refresh youself, and put it on again when you wish. And while you do
not have your helm on your head, no one dares to strike until you have
put it back on. On this helm they put an armorial mantling, the torse
or twisted roll of the device, and the crest with the tourneyer's arms,
attached with laces as has already been explained. And over the brigandine
they put the surcoat. And when all this is on a man, he seems more wide
than tall, so I won't say anything more about it. And as to their saddles,
they are of the height that is usual for jousting in ancient France, and
the peytrel and the chanfron of leather also; and when they are wearing
all this equipment on horseback, they cannot aid or turn their horses,
because they are so clumsy. And to return to the true and more gentle
fashion, the manner of arming yourself that was described above is the
most beautiful and safest. And war saddles also are good for tourneying,
when they are well closed behind, and not too high at the saddle-bow in
And as to their maces, swords and leg harness, they are like those that
were described above.
Moreover, it is necessary to have a kind of hourt that is attached in
front of the bow of the saddle, both above and below, in several places,
as well and as securely as you can; and it falls the length of an ell
in front of the saddle, and wraps around the breast of the horse. The
hourt is good to protect the horse or destrier from being hit in the fray,
and it also protects the legs of the tourneyers from blows.
This hourt is made of long straw between strong cloth reinforced with
whipcords, and inside the hourt is a sack full of straw, in the shape
of a crescent, attached to the hourt, that rests against the breast of
the horse, and raises the hourt, so that it doesn't bang against the legs
of the horse. And besides the reinforcement, there may be rods sewn inside
that hold it straight and in place. And the fashion of the hourt is shown
below, both the inside and the outside, so that you can see the one and
the other, and how you put the sack inside the hourt. The fashion of the
sack is thus:
[picture caption]Hereafter is shown the fashion and style of the sack
that goes inside the hourt.
[picture caption]Here is shown the inside of the hourt.
The inside of the hourt is as has been shown above.
[picture caption]Here is shown the outside of the hourt.
Item, cover the hourt with the coat of arms of the lord who will use it
in the fight as is shown hereafter.
[picture caption]Hereafter is shown the covering of the hourt.
[picture caption]Hereafter follows the two Dukes of Brittany and Bourbon
on horseback armed and with crests as if they were at the tourney.
The barriers ought to be one-fourth longer than wide, and of the height
of a man, or of the length of an arm and a half, of strong wood and with
two crossbars, the one high and the other at knee- level. They should
be double; that is to say a second barrier four feet outside the first
barrier, to refresh the foot servants, and protect them from the press;
and within this space should be the armed and unarmed men ordered by the
judges to protect the tourneyers from the crowd. And as to the size of
the lists, they should be bigger or smaller according to the number of
tourneyers and the opinion of the judges.
[picture caption]Hereafter is shown the fashion of the lists and the scaffolds.
And because it seems to me that the harness and equipment for tourneying
have been sufficiently explained, I return to explaining the customs,
rules and ceremonies that are necessary to well and honorably hold a tourney.
And to begin with, you have already heard the cry of the king of arms,
who announced to all those who wish to participate in the tourney that
no matter who they are they must come to their inns the Thursday four
days before the tourney, before the hour of terce, on pain of not being
allowed to take part, and display their coats of arms in the windows.
Hence it is necessary to next describe the order and manner in which the
tourneyers ought to enter the city where the tourney is held.
And first, the princes, lords and barons who wish to display their banners
at the tourney ought to take pains to be accompanied, especially when
entering the city, by as many tourneying knights and squires as possible;
and in this way ought to make their entry as follows hereafter.
That is to say that the destrier of the prince, lord or baron who is captain
of the knights and squires who accompany him ought to enter the city first,
covered with the device of the captain, and with four escutcheons of the
captain's arms on the four limbs of the horse, and the horse's head decorated
with ostrich feathers, and on the horse's neck a collar of bells, and
in the saddle a very small page, as best pleases him. And after the prince's
destrier ought to enter similarly the destriers of the other knights and
squires of his company, two by two, or each one by himself if you like,
with the knights' and squires' arms on their four limbs, as above. And
after the destriers ought to come the trumpeters and minstrels, playing,
or whatever other instruments you wish; and after them, heralds or pursuivants
dressed in their coats of arms; and after them, the knights and squires
with all their other followers.
Here begins the description of the entry of one of the captains to the
place of the tourney, which should suffice for both.
Item, immediately after a lord or baron arrives at the inn, he should
display his coat of arms in the window. He should have the heralds and
pursuivants put up a long board attached to the wall in front of his lodgings,
on which is painted his blazon, that is to say his crest and shield, and
those of his company who will take part in the tourney, knights and squires
alike. And he should have his banner displayed at a high window of the
inn, hanging over the road; and for doing this the heralds and pursuivants
ought to be paid four sous for putting up each coat of arms, and each
banner, and they must supply the nails and ropes to nail and raise and
lower the banners, pennons and coats of arms whenever it is necessary.
And note that the captains of the tourney should do the same as the other
lords and barons in front of their inns: there is no difference, except
that at the windows of their inns they should display their pennons with
their banners: and the barons who put up their banners at the windows
are required on their honor to display the coats of arms of at least five
other tourneyers with their banners, as a company.
Hereafter follows a description of how the captains display their blazons
at the windows.
Hereafter follows the form and manner in which the judges should make
their entry into the city, on the day on which the lords and other tourneyers
arrive; nevertheless the judges ought to take pains to enter first, if
they can. And first.
In front of the judges should come four sounding trumpeters, each carrying
the banner of one of the judges, and after the four trumpeters, four pursuivants
each wearing the coat of arms of one of the judges, dressed like the trumpeters.
And after the four pursuivants should come the king of arms who cried
the tourney, alone, wearing over his coat of arms the piece of cloth of
gold, velvet, or figured crimson satin, and over that, the parchment with
coats of arms as described before.
And after the king of arms should come the two knights who are judges,
side by side, each on a fair palfrey covered with the judge's coat of
arms right down to the ground. The judges should be dressed in long robes,
the best they can afford. And the two squires should come after them,
similarly. And each judge should be accompanied by a foot servant with
his hand on the bridle of the destrier. Also each of the judges ought
to have a white rod as tall as he is in his hand, which he carries upright,
on foot and on horseback, wherever he is, during the festival, so that
everyone may better know who are the judges. And after them should come
as large an entourage as possible.
Hereafter follows a description of the entry of the judges
And note that as soon as they have arrived, the lord appellant and the
lord defendant ought to send their chamberlains and their accountants
to the judges, to do and pay for whatever the judges find necessary, as
is more clearly explained hereafter.
The judges ought to keep their entourage together during the festival
and if at all possible lodge themselves in a religious house where there
is a cloister, because there is nothing so convenient for setting up the
crests of the tourneyers as a cloister. (The day after the judges and
the tourneyers arrive at the inns, each tourneyer must bring his crest
and banners to be set up by the judges, and divided by the judges into
those of one side and those of the other, and visited by and shown to
the ladies.) And the judges should have in front of their inn a cloth
three arms'-lengths high and two wide, on which are drawn the banners
of the four judges held by the king of arms who cried the festival, and
above at the top of the cloth should be written the two names of the captains
of the tourney, that is, the appellant and the defendant, and at the foot,
below the four banners, should be written the names, surnames, lordships,
titles and offices of the four judges.
[picture caption]Here is shown the herald who holds the four banners of
the four judges.
On the evening after the lords, knights and squires arrive, and the judges
as well, all the ladies and damsels who have come to see the festival
should assemble in a great room after supper. Then the judges should come
there with their white rods and their trumpeters sounding, and the pursuivants
in front of them, and the king of arms, in such an order and triumph as
they entered the city, except that they are on foot. In that room they
will find their place prepared and they should stand there.
Similarly, all other knights and squires should come at that hour to the
hall. Then, by the order of the judges, dancing should begin. After everyone
has danced a half hour or so, the judges should have their pursuivants
and the king of arms mount up onto the gallery where the minstrels play,
to make a cry in the form and manner that follows:
That is to say, that the pursuivant who has the loudest voice should cry,
taking three great breaths, and three great pauses:
Hear Ye, Hear Ye, Hear Ye.
And then the king of arms should say:
Very high and powerful princes, dukes, counts, barons, lords, knights
and squires at arms: I notify you on behalf of my lords the judges that
each of you must bring your helm, with the crest which you intend to wear
at the tourney, and your banner, at the hour of noon, to the inn of the
judges, so that the judges, at one o'clock, may set them up for the ladies
to come and see and give their opinions to the judges.
And tomorrow, there is nothing else for you to do except that there is
a dance after supper, as today.
After this has been announced, the dancing should begin again, and last
as long as the judges like. Then they should bring out wine and spices,
and so everyone leaves the festival at the end of the first day.
The next day, at the hour aforesaid, they should bring the banners, pennons,
and crests of the captains to the cloister, to present them to the judges:
and afterwards all the other banners, and helms with crests, as described
before, in the order that follows:
First, the banners of all princes should be brought by one of their knight
chamberlains, and the pennons of the captains should be brought by their
senior valets or carvers.
And the banners of the other knights banneret, by gentlemen, as they wish.
The princes' helms should be brought by their squires.
And the helms of the other knights banneret, knights and squires, by gentlemen
or honest valets.
[picture caption]Here below is shown how they bring the banners and crests
of the appellant to the cloister, to arrange them and to divide them into
When the helms have been set up and displayed, then ladies and damsels
may come, with lords, knights and esquires, to see all of them. The judges
should lead them three or four times around the cloister to see the crests.
And there should be a herald or pursuivant, who will tell the ladies the
name of the person whose crest is before them. And if one of them has
spoken ill of the ladies, they may touch his crest, and the matter will
be considered the next day. All the same no one will be beaten at the
tourney except by the decision of the judges, and after the case has been
debated and proven and found to merit punishment: and in that case the
malefactor will be well beaten, so that he feels it in his shoulders,
and so that he will not in the future speak ill of the ladies, as he did
And besides the complaints of the ladies, there are certain other more
serious offenses and worse than speaking ill of women, for which the punishment
that follows is due to those who have committed them.
The first case and the most serious is when a gentleman is found to be
a liar and to have broken a promise, especially in a matter of honor.
The second is when a gentleman is a usurer, and manifestly lends at interest.
The third case is when a gentleman marries a wife who is a commoner, and
Of these three cases, the first two cannot be remitted, because one must
have rigorous justice at a tourney, and they are so dishonest and outrageous
that if anyone is found to have committed them, after he has been notified,
his helm is cast to the ground.
Note: If there comes someone to the tourney who is not a gentleman in
all his lines of descent, but who is a virtuous person, he should not
be beaten the first time, except by princes and great lords, who, without
hurting him, should beat him with their swords and maces, and this should
always be considered to be an honor. And this will be a sign that because
of his great goodness and virtue, he deserves to be at the tourney, and
from then on no one may reprove him for his lineage in any place of honor
where he is found, at the tourney or elsewhere. There too he may bear
a new crest, or change his arms if he wishes, and keep them thereafter
for himself and his heirs.
The punishment for the two principal serious offenses described above
is as follows:
That is to say, that the other lords, knights and squires at the tourney
ought to arrest and beat the offender until he agrees to give up his horse,
which is the same as saying, "I yield me." And when he has yielded,
the other tourneyers should have their people on foot and on horseback
cut the girth of his saddle and carry the miscreant to the list barrier
on the saddle and set him on it as if on horseback, and keep him there
in that state, so that he cannot get down or sneak away until the end
of the tourney; and his horse should be given to the trumpeters or minstrels.
The punishment for the third offense is that the offender ought to be
well beaten, until he gives up his horse like the other above. But his
girth is not cut nor is he put on horseback on the barriers, as for the
first two offenses. Instead the reins of his horse are taken from his
hands and over the neck of his horse, and his mace and sword are cast
to the ground, and he is led by the bridle to a herald or pursuivant who
will take him to a corner of the lists, and keep him there until the end
of the tourney. And if he tries to escape or flee from the hands of the
heralds, he may be beaten again and his girth cut and be put on horseback
on the barriers, as above.
In the fourth case, of a gentleman who has spoken ill of the honor of
ladies or damsels, without reason. And for punishment he should be beaten
by the other knights and squires at the tourney, until he cries in a loud
voice to the ladies for mercy, so that everyone can hear him, and promises
to never again speak ill or villainously of them. And to return to our
subject, when the judges have divided the helms and banners into two sides,
each of the servants who carried the helms and banners to the inn, with
the permission of the judges will carry them to his lord and master, in
the same order and triumph as he carried them in, or otherwise if his
master wishes. And nothing else happens this day, except that after supper,
just as the evening before, there will be dancing, to which all the knights
and squires should come. And after the first or second dance, the king
of arms and the pursuivants should make a cry, by the order of the judges,
as was described before, as follows:
High and powerful princes, counts, barons, knights and squires, who today
presented to my lords the judges and to the ladies also, your crests and
banners, which have been divided into two equal sides, under the banners
and pennons of the very high and very noble prince and my very redoubted
lord the Duke of Brittany appellant and my redoubted lord the Duke of
Bourbon defendant: my lords the judges wish you to know that tomorrow
at one hour after noon the lord appellant, with his pennon alone, will
come to show himself in the lists, accompanied by all the other knights
and squires who are of his party, on their destriers, covered with their
coats of arms, and themselves without armor but dressed as well and prettily
as possible, so that my lords the judges may take their oath. And after
the lord appellant has shown himself, and the oath is taken, and he has
left the lists, the lord defendant will do the same at the second hour,
and similarly take his oath, and let no one fail to appear.
Hereafter follows the way in which the lord appellant comes the next day
to swear his oath and show himself in the lists.
And know that at the hour after dinner when he ought to come, the heralds
and pursuivants, dressed in their coats of arms, should go crying through
the city before the inns of the tourneyers: "To honor, lords knights
and squires! to honor! to honor!" And then each tourneyer, armed
with his weapons and gently dressed, without armor, a lance or baton in
his hand, should mount his horse. And he should have a banneret with him,
who should carry his banner rolled and not displayed, and his valets on
foot or on horseback, also unarmed, who will accompany him to the inn
of their captain, where he will come to accompany his pennon to the barriers,
and thence into the lists. And similarly the defendant with his barons
and the others of his side, after the appellant has left.
Description of the way in which the lord appellant and the lord defendant
come to the barriers to make their oaths The oath that the judges take
from the princes, lords, barons, knights and squires at the tourney is
as follows: The judges' herald will say to the tourneyers:
High and powerful princes, lords, barons, knights and squires, each and
every one of you, please raise your right hand on high, towards the saints,
and all together, as you will in the future, promise and swear by the
faith and promise of your body, and on your honor, that you will strike
none of your company at this tourney knowingly with the point of your
sword, or below the belt, and that no one will attack or draw on anyone
unless it is permitted, and also that if by chance someone's helm falls
off, no one will touch him until he has put it back on, and you agree
that if you knowingly do otherwise you will lose your arms and horses,
and be banished from the tourney; also to observe the orders of the judges
in everything and everywhere as they order delinquents to be punished
without argument; and also you swear and promise this by the faith and
promise of your body and on your honor.
To which they will answer. "Yes, yes." This done, the defendant
should enter the lists to show himself, as described below.
On this day nothing else happens, except that there is dancing after supper
like the day before, and after everyone has danced a little, the king
of arms should mount up to the gallery of the minstrels, and have one
of the pursuivants cry:
Hear Ye, Hear Ye, Hear Ye.
And then he should say:
High and noble princes, counts, lords, barons, knights and squires who
will be taking part in this tourney: I am to tell you on behalf of the
judges that each of you must be in the lists tomorrow at noon, armed and
ready for the tourney, because at one hour after noon the judges will
cut the ropes to begin the tourney, where there will be rich and noble
gifts given by the ladies.
Moreover, I warn you that no one can bring within the lists mounted servants
beyond the specified number: that is to say four valets for a prince,
three for a count, two for a knight, and one for a squire, and as many
foot servants as you like; because that is the rule the judges have made.
This done, the judges should come to the ladies, and choose from them
two of the most beautiful and noble, whom they should lead with torches,
heralds and pursuivants. And one of the judges should carry a long veil,
embroidered, jewelled and ornamented very beautifully with gold. And the
judges should lead the ladies around the room on their arms, until they
find a knight or squire who is among the tourneyers, whom the judges have
chosen beforehand to honor above all others, before whom the ladies and
judges stop together. And the king of arms should say to the knight or
squire what follows:
Very noble and redoubted knight (or very noble and gentle squire), as
it has always been the custom of ladies and damsels to have compassion,
those who have come to see the tourney that will be held tomorrow, fearing
that some gentleman who has done ill out of simplicity may be chastised
too heavily by the demands of justice, and not wishing to see anyone beaten
very hard, regardless of who he is, unless they can help him, the ladies
have asked the judges to assign to them a famous, wise, and notable knight
or squire who, more than all others, deserves the honor of carrying on
their behalf this veil on the end of a lance tomorrow at the tourney.
And if someone is too severely beaten, the knight or squire will touch
his crest with the veil, and all those beating him must stop and not dare
touch him: because from that hour forward, the ladies have taken him under
their protection and safeguard. You have been chosen above all others
at this tourney to be their knight (or squire) of honor, and undertake
this charge, and they ask and require you to do as they wish, and so do
Then the ladies should give him the veil, asking him to do this; and after,
the knight (or squire) kisses them, and then answers them as follows:
I humbly thank my ladies and damsels for the honor it has pleased them
to do to me: and although they could easily have found others who could
do this better, and who merit this honor more than I, nevertheless I obey
the ladies freely and will do my loyal duty, asking always that they forgive
Then the herald and pursuivants should tie the veil to the end of a lance,
which they should raise on high, and afterwards one of the pursuivants
should carry it upright in front of the knight or squire of honor from
that hour onwards. And he should spend the whole evening beside the greatest
lady who is at the festival.
And while they are with the ladies, the king of arms should have a pursuivant
make a cry, as follows:
Hear Ye, Hear Ye, Hear Ye.
Then the king of arms should say:
Let all prince, lords, barons, knights and esquires know that N. has been
chosen by the ladies to be knight (or squire) of honor, because of his
honor, courage, and gentleness. You are commanded by the judges, and the
ladies also, that when you see this knight (or squire) tomorrow lower
this veil over some one of you who is being beaten for his misdeeds, no
one should dare to beat or touch him; from from that hour the ladies have
taken him under their protection and mercy, and this veil is called The
mercy of ladies.
And this done, the ladies should begin dancing again, and dance as long
as the judges wish, and then they should bring wine and spices, just as
on the previous days.
Hereafter follows the way in which the knight (or squire) of honor ought
to enter the lists with the veil, the place where he should stand, and
what he should do.
On the day of the tourney, after the ladies have climbed up into their
scaffold, the knight (or squire) of honor ought to enter the lists with
the judges, fully armed, with a helm with a crest on his head, and his
horse covered with his arms, ready to fight, the mace and the sword hanging
from the saddle, carrying the lance to which the veil is tied. And in
this way he should come first between the king of arms and the judges,
or between the two senior judges, who ought to arrive a half hour before
the tourneyers, just as they made their entry into the city, with sounding
trumpets. And they ought to enter the lists, and go around the lists once
or twice, to see if the ropes are good and to arrange for the people to
cut them; and then they should leave the said knight (or squire) of honor
between the two ropes, with four or six valets on horseback, and as many
on foot, or otherwise if he wishes; and the four judges should take the
helm off his head with their own hands, and give it to the king of arms,
who should carry it before them to the ladies' scaffold, and there the
judges should give it to the ladies. Then the king of arms should say:
My very redoubted and honored ladies and damsels, behold your humble servant
and knight (or squire) of honor, who has entered the lists ready to do
what you have commanded, and behold his helm and crest which you should
keep in your scaffold, if it pleases you.
Then a gentleman or honest valet, chosen for this, should take the crest
to the ladies' scaffold and put it up on a lance about the height of a
man, or a little more, and carry it in his hands in front of the ladies,
so that everyone can see it during the tourney.
And this done, the judges should take their leave and go up into their
scaffold, and the knight (or squire) of honor should stay between the
ropes, with his servants, until the tourneyers arrive.
An hour before the lord appellant enters the lists, he should send his
trumpeters on horseback through the city, to collect his party, who will
know by the trumpets that they should collect in the street before his
inn, or another place nearby, as ordered by their lord; and where his
pennon is set up for them to assemble, so that they may enter the lists
And the lord defendant should do the same thing before he is supposed
to enter the lists.
On the morning of the day of the tourney each of the knights and squires,
knights banneret and others alike, ought to do what he needs to do before
lunch time; and also they should rest if it seems good to them; for after
ten o'clock they will have no spare time to do anything, except to arm
themselves and get ready for the tourney. After eleven o'clock they should
be ready and armed on their destriers, leaving their inns to assemble
at the inn of their captains, with whom they are tourneying that day,
at the hour that the heralds and pursuivants have announced. For at eleven
o'clock, the heralds and pursuivants should go crying before the inns
of the tourneyers, with loud voices, "Take up, take up your helms,
take up your helms, lords knights and squires, take up, take up, take
up your helms and come out with banners to gather at the banner of your
captain." Then each of the tourneyers should be ready in the street,
and should go on horseback to the inn of the captain, or else to some
wider street, as he has been advised by the captain, to escort the captain's
banner, and assemble all the tourneyers.
Note that in Flanders, Brabant, and the Low Countries, where they often
hold tourneys, it is the custom that the kings of arms, heralds and pursuivants
carry the banners. Each tourneyer gives to the heralds and pursuivants
who carry his banner a coat with his arms and a big strong horse, and
a habergeon if the herald or pursuivant wants one, with a salet, vambraces,
rerebraces, gauntlets, and leg harness. But in the high Germanies and
on the Rhine, they don't do this; for the banners of the tourneyers are
carried by young and handsome companions, dressed for war, and on horseback;
who are all armed like crayfish or in white harness, with sallets or kettle
hats trimmed with feathers, and leg harness; and they have over their
clothes fair hukes with goldwork or the devices of their masters. And
they are mounted on horses almost as strong as the tourneyers'; the horses
are covered richly and gently. And these companions are always at the
tails of their masters' horses, and never let their banners fall, or lose
their masters in the crowd. I think this custom is better than that of
Flanders, or Brabant, because many of the heralds and pursuivants in France
are poorly dressed, and when they are armed and holding banners, they
are so hindered that they let the banners fall, nor can they follow their
masters; which is very inconvenient and dishonorable for their masters.
Item, when the tourneyers have arrived and assembled together, the lord
appellant, with whom they should ride together to the lists, should come
to the place where they are assembled, in the form and manner described
That is to say, that they should have kings of arms, heralds, or pursuivants
with them, and many trumpeters and minstrels sounding; and the lord appellant's
pennon should be carried before him by someone, as described above. After
this pennon should come the lord appellant, and at the tail of his horse
whoever carries his banner. And after him two knights banneret in front
with their banners, and twenty tourneyers, and then banners and tourneyers
alternately, and in such order they proceed to the barriers. And when
they are before the barriers, their servants should make a great cry;
and then all the knights and squires should lift their right arms over
their heads, holding their swords and maces, as if threatening to strike;
then they should go a pace just to the gate through which they should
enter the lists, and there wait quietly. And then the herald of the lord
appellant should say to the judges:
My honored and redoubted lords, the very high and very powerful prince
and my very redoubted lord the Duke of Brittany my master, who is present
as the appellant, presents himself to you with all the noble baronage
that you see, whom you have placed under his banner, very eager and ready
to begin the tourney assigned today with my very redoubted lord the Duke
of Bourbon and the noble baronage equally ready to fight under him; asking
that it please you you to prepare for him a place to do this, so that
the ladies who are present can see the entertainment.
This done, the herald in the judges' scaffold should answer for the judges,
saying as follows:
Very high and very powerful prince and my very redoubted lord, my lords
the judges here present have heard and understood what your herald has
said for you; to which they answer that your presence is very pleasing,
and they well perceive the great and high will for honor and desire for
valor that is in you and in the barons present under you, for which reason
and because this tourney was proclaimed several days before, so that it
could come to pass in good time and joyously, they assign the place there
within the lists on the right side, and you may enter in God's name when
This said, the one who bears the pennon of the appellant lord should enter
first, and then the lord appellant, and then immediately he who carries
his banner, and then the knights banneret with their banners, and the
tourneyers in the order in which they came, and they should go a pace
with trumpets sounding and minstrels singing, as soon as someone opens
the passage into the lists, by which they should enter: and when it is
open, they should enter within, and their servants should make a great
cry, and the tourneyers should lift their arms high over their heads,
making threatening motions with their swords or maces, as described before.
And when they are in the lists, they should take their place on their
side, and arrange themselves for battle, in the best array and order that
they can manage behind the rope on their side, without leaving their side,
so that those farthest to the front cannot go any farther. And those who
hold banners should place themselves at the tails of the horses of their
masters, and the other servants on horseback should surround them, and
those on foot should be whereever seems best, but not in the front where
their masters are, and in this way they should wait for the defendant
to come to the lists in the way which follows.
The lord defendant should collect his men before his inn in the same way
as the lord appellant, or elsewhere as he commands by heralds and pursuivants,
as before, and then come to the barriers with his barons and the other
tourneyers and be presented to the judges. From there he should enter
the lists, and say the words and do the proper things, like the lord appellant,
without changing anything, except that in all the speeches he makes to
the judges, where the other called himself the appellant, he calls himself
the defendant. And to keep it short, when he is in the lists, he should
ready himself for battle, and set up his banners as the lord appellant
did, and the tourneyers under him against the rope nearest to them. Between
the two ropes there should be a space established by the judges, as described
before. And at the four ends of the stretched ropes, there should be four
big strong men in pourpoints, each of whom holds a big carpenter's axe
or hatchet to cut the ropes. But before they are cut, the king of arms
should have the trumpets sound, and cry in a loud voice three times, "Be
ready for the ropes to be cut, be ready for the ropes to be cut, be ready
for the ropes to be cut, you who are committed to this; then rush into
battle and do your best." Then when the two sides are arranged as
if for battle and ready for the tourney the king of arms should make another
Hear Ye, Hear Ye, Hear Ye.
My lords the judges pray and require that none of you gentlemen tourneyers
beat another with the point or back of the sword, nor below the belt,
as you have promised, nor strike nor draw unless it is permitted; and
also that none of you attack anyone whose helm falls off until he has
put it on again, and also that none of you beat anyone more than anyone
else, unless it is someone who, for his sins, has been singled out for
Moreover, I advise you that when the trumpets have sounded the retreat
and the barriers are open, if you stay longer in the lists, you will not
win the prize.
After the trumpets have sounded and the cry has been made, the judges
should give the tourneyers a little space, the length of seven psalms,
or thereabouts, to put themselves in order. And when this is done, the
king of arms should cry, by the order of the judges, taking three great
breaths and three great pauses, "Cut the cords, and begin the battle
when you wish." And after the third cry has been made, those who
are to cut the cords should cut them. And at once those who carry the
banners and the foot servants and those on horseback should shout the
cries of each of their tourneying masters. Then the two sides should gather
together and fight until by the order of the judges the trumpets sound
Item, know that while the tourneyers are fighting, the pursuivants should
be between the two lists, and the trumpeters too, who should not play,
but should shout the cries of whichever of the tourneyers they like.
Item, the two pennons of the two captains, that is, the appellant and
the defendant, should not leave the ends of the lists, each on his side
where they entered for the tourney.
And note here that the tourneyers may keep within the lists with them
their valets on horseback and foot, up to the specified number, each according
to his rank; which valets on horseback should be armed with jazerants
or brigandines, sallets, gauntlets, leg harness, and they should have
the shaft of a lance, about two and a half or three feet long, in their
fists, to defend themselves against the blows that might fall on them
in the press. And it is their job to take their master out of the press
when he asks and they can do it, always crying the cry of their master.
And the foot servants ought to be in pourpoints or short jackets, with
sallets on their heads and gauntlets on their hands, and in the right
hand the shaft of a lance two arms'-lengths long. And their job is to
lift man and horse with their staffs when they see them fall to the ground,
if they can, and if they can't lift him, they should stand around him
and protect and defend him with their lances with which they make lists
and barriers until the end of the tourney, so that the other tourneyers
cannot overrun him. And if they do this and he is saved by them, he must
give them wine at the command of the judges.
Description of how the appellant lord and the defendant lord should assemble
at the tourney
When it seems to the judges that the tourney has lasted long enough, they
should have their trumpets and horns sound to end the tourney, which done,
they should have their herald or pursuivant say the following words:
Let the banner bearers ride out, leave the lists, and return to your inns;
for you lords, princes, barons, knights and squires who have tourneyed
in this place before the ladies, have so done your duty that henceforth
you may go out and leave the lists in good time; for already the prize
is awarded, which will be given by the ladies to him who deserves it.
This cry made, the trumpeters of either side should sound the retreat;
and then the men who cut the ropes, the guards of the lists and the foot
servants should open the lists on both sides. And those who carry the
pennons and banners of the two captains should go out a fair pace, without
waiting for their masters, if they don't want to come yet. And the other
banners should follow one after another, from the side of the lord appellant
and the side of the lord defendant, going out on the side where they entered,
as beautifully as possible and attended by all their men; and they should
return to their inns, as described above. And at the same time the trumpeters
should keep sounding the retreat until there are no more tourneyers in
the lists. And they may go in troops fighting among themselves to their
inns, or without attacking each other, as they wish; and in this way the
tourney is finished and over.
Description of how the tourneyers attack each other in troops
The knight of honor should leave the barriers with the banners and march
first, and the pennons and banners should come after him. And when they
pass before the ladies' scaffold the man who held his helm and crest in
the scaffold should come down and get on a horse, and carry the helm in
front of the knight of honor till they reach the inns, in the same way
as they entered.
In the evening after supper all the ladies, damsels and tourneyers should
assemble in the hall where they dance as they did the evening before.
And the knight of honor should come there with the veil carried in front
of him on the end of a lance, and in the company of the judges come before
the ladies, thank them for the honor they have done to him, and ask them
to pardon his faults and excuse his simplicity.
This said, the veil is taken off the lance and given to the knight of
honor who returns it to the ladies and kisses them, and then returns with
the judges, those who are knights on the right and those who are squires
on the left. When it is time to give the prize the judges and the knight
of honor, accompanied by the king of arms, heralds and pursuivants, should
go to chose one of the ladies and two damsels in her company, and lead
them out of the hall to some other place, with a great many torches, and
then should return to the hall with the prize in the way that follows:
First, the trumpeters of the judges should go before, playing, then all
the heralds and pursuivants like a fleet of ships; and after them the
king of arms alone, and after him the knight of honor carrying the shaft
of a lance in his hand, about five feet long or thereabouts. After the
knight of honor should come the lady who carries the prize covered with
the veil that was carried before the knight of honor, and on her right
and left should come the judges, knights and squires, who should support
her under the arms; and to the right and the left of the knights should
be the two damsels on the arms of the two judges who are squires. The
two damsels should hold the two ends of the veil, and in this way they
should go three times around the hall, and then stop before the one to
whom they wish to give the prize.
Description of how the lady, the knight or squire of honor and the judges
give the prize
Then the king of arms should say to the knight to whom the prize will
be given the words that follow, and he should do him the honor due to
his estate, whether he is a prince, lord, baron, knight, or squire, saying:
Behold here this noble lady, my lady of such a place N., accompanied by
the knight or squire of honor and by my lords the judges, who have come
to give you the tourney prize, because you have been judged the knight
or squire who has fought best today in the melee of the tourney, and my
lady prays that you will take it with good will.
Then the lady should uncover the prize, and give it to him. Then he should
take it and kiss her, and the two damsels if he likes. And then the king
of arms, heralds and pursuivants should shout his battle cry around the
And this done, he should lead the lady to the dance, and the judges, the
knight of honor, the king of arms and the pursuivants should lead the
two damsels back to their places, without sounding the trumpets any more.
When they have finished their dance, the king of arms, or a herald, should
cry the jousts for the next day, for all those who want to joust individually
rather than in teams, at which jousts there will be three prizes given.
The first will be a wand of gold for him who strikes the best blow with
a lance that day.
The second will be a ruby worth a thousand ecus or less, for him who breaks
the most lances.
And the third will be a diamond worth a thousand ecus or less, for him
who stays the longest in the lists without losing his helm.
Item, hereafter follows a list of the things the judges must do when they
accept the office of being judges at the tourney;
Hereafter also what the king of arms must do;
Item similarly what the heralds and pursuivants must do;
Item hereafter, the things the lords appellant and defendant must do,
each for his part, concerning the charges, costs and expenses, and the
And similarly the other lords and bannerets, each in his place, and the
valets on horseback also.
And first, the judges ought to fix the day and the place, in some good
town, in a central location, so that many knights and squires can come
from all parts.
And the place chosen by the judges ought to be agreeable to both the parties:
that is to say, the appellant and the defendant, and by their confirmation
and decision rather than anyone elses'; because the appellant and defendant
must pay the expenses for the tourney equally.
Item, the judges must go to the town where the tourney will be, to see
if it is a suitable place.
Item, they must arrange for the lists to be made according to their plan.
Item, see that in the town there is a great hall where the ladies and
damsels can assemble to dance, with a dressing room where they may go
to refresh and rest themselves, or change their clothes if they wish.
Item, in the hall should be tables and trestles, benches, chairs, stools,
dressers, hanging wooden chandeliers, which are called crosses, with wooden
bowls to hold the torches to light the hall; the gallery where the minstrels
may play and from which they may make cries in the hall, and tapestries
to decorate it, linens and also vessels of pewter and silver on a high
Item, to arrange the inns for the tourneyers in the town.
Item, to have the scaffolds by the lists set up, for the ladies and for
Item, to have written down the cries and ceremonies that they have to
make, as has been fully described above. Item, to provide for the supper
the eve of the tourney, and for the dinner and supper the day of the tourney,
for the ladies in the hall;
And for the wine and spices on the other days, and the torches and lighting
in the hall and elsewhere.
They also ought to know about all the questions and debates that may come
up at the tourney.
And they ought to pay the heralds and pursuivants with them for their
expenses, and especially ought always to have with them the king of arms
who cried the festival, and the four pursuivants with four trumpeters,
and similarly ought to pay for their expenses during the festival; for
the pursuivants may serve in many ways during the festival.
The two captains ought to pay all the expenses of the judges, and in general
all the expenses, fees and charges equally: and the captains should do
honor to the judges, and give to each judge an ankle-length gown of silk
cloth, of the same color, so that during the festival they may be known
and honored by others: that is to say to the two knights of velvet cloth,
and to the two squires, damask.
Item, immediately after the judges have arrived at the place of the tourney,
the lords appellant and defendant must each send to the judges a steward
and an accountant, and each a quartermaster and a clerk, that is to say,
the stewards and accountants to pay for and do what the judges order,
and the quartermasters and clerks to arrange the lodgings for the lords,
knights, squires, tourneyers, ladies and damsels and others who come to
the festival, as was described at length in the chapter about the inns
of the judges.
Note that the king of arms should be in the scaffold with the judges.
And also note that the judges should not allow anyone to appear at the
tourney mounted on a horse of excessive and outrageous size and stronger
than the others, unless he is a prince.
Hereafter follow the rights of the heralds, pursuivants, trumpeters and
minstrels, and the things that appertain to the heralds and pursuivants,
and what appertains to the trumpeters and minstrels.
All the knights and squires who have never tourneyed before must pay for
their helms and their welcome to arms, to the king of arms, heralds or
pursuivants, at their pleasure or by the order of the judges: and nevertheless
if they have paid before for a joust it doesn't follow that they do not
have to pay again for the sword, for the lance cannot pay for the sword.
But whoever has paid for a helm for the sword, that is to say for a tourney,
will be free of the lance, that is to say of the joust.
Item, the horsecloths of the horses decorated with coats of arms are the
right of the king of arms, heralds and pursuivants, and the banners and
crests go to the church of the cloister where they set up the banners
and crests, or to other churches as the judges order.
Item, those who won the prize ought to give something to the trumpeters
and minstrels, and also the two captains of the tourney.