Anglo, Sidney. "How to win at tournaments: the technique of chivalric
combat," The Antiquaries Journal 68 (1988): 248-264.
Sydney. "Le Jeu de la Hache. A Fifteenth-Century Treatise on the
Teaching of Chivalric Axe Combat" Archaeologia 109 (1991) 113-28
Richard W. and Juliet Barker. Tournaments: Jousts, Chivalry and Pageants
in the Middle Ages (N.Y., 1989).
Thorough, well-written, and extraordinarily well illustrated.
Barker, Juliet. The Tournament in England 1100-1400 (Woodbridge, 1986).
Larry D. "The Tournament in the Romances of Chretien de Troyes &
L'Histoire de Guillaume Le Marechal," in Chivalric literature : essays
on relations between literature & life in the later Middle Ages, ed.
Larry D. Benson and John Leyerle. Studies in medieval culture 14 (Kalamazoo,
Mich: Medieval Institute Publications, 1980). Reprinted in Contradictions:
from Beowulf to Chaucer: selected studies of Larry D. Benson, ed. Theodore
M. Andersson and Stephen A. Barney. (Aldershot, Hants, England: Scolar
Press; Brookfield, Vt.: Ashgate Pub. Co., 1995.) On-line at the Harvard
Geoffrey Chaucer page.
R. Coltman. The Medieval Tournament (New York, 1995).
The original edition of 1919 was entitled The Tournament: its Periods
and Phases. The scholarship is out of date, but the book includes useful
excerpts from original sources.
Cripps-Day, F.H. The History of the Tournament (London, 1918; reprint
New York, 1982). Scholarship out of date, but recommended for its appendices
of original documents.
Denholm-Young, N. "The Tournament in the Thirteenth Century,"
in Studies in Medieval History Presented to Frederick Maurice Powicke,
ed. R.W. Hunt, W.H. Pantin, and R.W. Southern (Oxford, 1948).
Noel. "Just Say No? Alfonso de Cartagena, the Doctrinal de los caballeros,
and Spain's Most Noble Pastime," in Medieval Studies in Honor of
Charles F. Fraker. ed. Mercedes Vaquero and Alan Deyermond (Madison: Hispanic
Seminary of Medieval Studies, 1995) pp. 129-141.
Noel. "La guerra, la paz y la vida caballeresca segun las cronicas
castellanas medievales," in Discursos y representaciones en la Edad
Media (Actas de las VI Jornadas Medievales). Ed. Lillian von der Walde
Moheno, Concepcion Company, Aurelio Gonzalez. Mexico: Universidad Nacional
Autonoma de Mexico y el Colegio de Mexico, 1999. 367-77.
Includes some references to jousting as described in Spanish chronicles.
Fallows, Noel. "Knighthood, Wounds, and the Chivalric Ideal in Medieval
Spain," In Chivalry, Knighthood, and War in the Middle Ages. Ed.
Susan J. Ridyard. Sewanee Medi?val Studies 9. Sewanee: The University
of the South, 1999. 117-36.
Analysis of various horrific accidents in the lists, 'cults' of wounds,
Fallows, Noel. "Un debate caballeresco del Renacimiento espanol:
‘caballeros estradiotes’ y ‘caballeros jinetes,’" Insula. Revista
de Letras y Ciencias Humanas 584-585 (agosto - septiembre 1995): 15-17.
Discusses light and heavy cavalry ('genitaires' and 'stradiots') and
the most appropriate (sporting) situations for both riding styles
Fleckenstein, Josef, ed. Das ritterliche Turnier im Mittelalter: Beitrage
zu einer vergleichenden Formen und Verhaltungeschichte des Rittertums
(Veroffentlichungen des Max-Planck-Instituts fur Geschichte 80, Gottingen
C. "Technique des combats singuliers d'apres les auteurs 'bourguignons'
du XVe siecle," Le Moyen age, 91 (1985): 415-457; 9 (1986): 5-40.
Discusses formal single combats as seen in the Burgundian writers.
The emphasis is particularly on the period 1440-70.
Gaucher, Elisabeth. "Les joutes de Saint-Inglevert: perception et
ecriture d'un evenement historique pendant la guerre de Cent Ans,"
Le Moyen age, 102 (1996): 229-243.
Discusses the five accounts of the great deed of arms of 1390, and
the differences between them.
Gravett, Christopher. Knights at Tournament (London, 1988). Published
by Osprey Publishing Ltd., London, and thus widely available.
Harvey, Ruth. Moriz von Craun and the Chivalric World (Oxford 1911) (especially
chapters III and IV).
William Henry. "The Tournament and Chivalry in German Tournament
Books of the Sixteenth Century and in the Literary Works of Emperor Maximilian
I," in The Ideals and Practice of Medieval Knighthood: papers from
the first and second Strawberry Hill conferences, ed. Christopher Harper-Bill
and Ruth Harvey (Woodbridge: Boydell Press, 1986), pp. 49-73.
J.P. "La Theme du Pas et l'Emprise," Ethnologie francaise, 22
Concentrates on the very late 14th century and the fifteenth century.
Relies on the concept of limited combat, as symbolized and actualized
in the restricted space where a Pas takes place.
Maurice. Chivalry (New Haven, 1984), pp. 83-101.
R.S. "Chivalric and Dramatic Imitations of Arthurian Romance,"
in Medieval Studies in Memory of A.K. Porter (Cambridge, Mass. 1939).
R.S. "Edward I: Arthurian Enthusiast," Speculum 28 (1953): 118-9.
Lena, ed. Riddarlek och Tornerspel -- Tournaments and the Dream of Chivalry
(Royal Armoury, Stockholm, 1992).
A catalog from an exhibition held at the Royal Armoury, including descriptions
of pieces and a set of short articles focusing on specific aspects of
the tournament. Much of the book is devoted to 17th and 18th century developments.
Text in both Swedish and English.
Vale, Juliet. Edward III and Chivalry: Chivalric Society and its Context,
1270-1350 (Woodbridge: Boydell Press, 1982).
Alan. Tudor and Jacobean Tournaments (London 1987).
and Original Sources
L'Histoire Guillaume le Mareschal, ed. P. Meyer (Paris, 1901).
An Old French biography of William Marshal, the great tournament champion
of the twelfth century, written for his followers shortly after his death
in 1219. William Marshal's political importance and the unique qualities
of the biography have produced an abundant literature:
Jessie. William the Marshal: The Last Great Feudal Baron (London, 1962).
Meant as a free translation and interpretation of the 13th c. original.
Includes some detailed anecdotes from the History.
David. William Marshal: Court, Career, and Chivalry in the Angevin Empire
1147-1219 (London, 1990). See especially pp. 171-184. Of William Marshal's
modern biographers, Crouch is the least interested in his subject's career
as a tourneyer. Rather, he sees the Marshal as an outstanding practitioner
of 12th century "courtesy," the art of maneuvering in the envious
and dangerous environment of the court. Crouch criticizes previous biographers
of the Marshal for being too romantic.
Georges. William Marshal: Flower of Chivalry (New York, 1985). Duby was
a leading scholar of the twelfth-century French-speaking aristocracy;
however this book has attracted a good deal of criticism.
Georges. "Youth in Aristocratic Society," in The Chivalrous
Society, tr. Cynthia Postan (Berkeley, 1980), pp. 112-122. One of Duby's
most important discussions of the social environment in which the tournament
became a prominent social custom.
Kim. "Man of Honor - Aspects of Medieval Knightly Identity in the
Verse Biography of William the Marshal," in The Birth of Identities,
ed. Brian McGuire (Copenhagen, 1996). A discussion of how knightly identities
were forged in the public eye, in tournament and otherwise.
John. "War and Chivalry in the History of William the Marshal,"
in Thirteenth Century England II, ed. P.R. Coss and S.D. Lloyd (Woodbridge:
Boydell Press, 1988), pp. 1-13. A critique of earlier scholarship on the
T.L. William Marshal, First Earl of Pembroke and Regent of England (Oxford,
1930). I have not read this work.
Sidney. William Marshal: Knight-Errant, Baron, and Regent of England.
(1933; reprint, Toronto, 1982). An old but still valuable investigation
of every aspect of William Marshal's career.
Bretel, Jacques. Le Tournoi de Chauvency, ed. M. Delbouille (Liege, 1932).
A poetic account of a tournament held in October, 1285. It is briefly
discussed in Maurice Keen's Chivalry, pp. 93-94, and Juliet Vale's Edward
III and Chivalry, pp. 5-12.
Chacon, Hernan. Tractado de la caualleria de la gineta. Introduction,
Text and Notes, Bibliography, Lexicographical Index., ed. Noel Fallows.
Exeter Hispanic Texts 55. Exeter: University of Exeter Press, 1999. xli
+ 60 pp.
First published in 1551, this is a manual on light cavalry, with emphasis
on sports such as 'sports with canes', bullfighting on horseback, etc.
Detailed technical advice.
Diaz de Gamez, Gutierre. El victorial: cronica de don Pero Nino (Madrid,
A 15th century biography of a famous Spanish knight, which includes some
descriptions Spanish and French tournaments he attended.
de Gamez, Gutierre. The Unconquered Knight: A Chronicle of the Deeds of
Don Pero Nino (London, 1928). A partial English translation. It includes
these descriptions of tournaments:
pp. 39-40: King Enrique of Castile honors the feast of the Church with
festivals, including jousts, tourney and sports with canes.
pp. 142- 148: Pero Nino takes parts in French jousts, which are described
in some detail.
pp. 149-154: Pero Nino is invited to help represent the Duke of Orleans'
household in a challenge against champions of the Duke of Burgundy. This
politically-charged but tournament-like event is forbidden by the King
Duarte, King of Portugal. Livro da ensinanca de bem cavalgar; por Joseph
M. Piel. [Lisbon] : Impr. Nacional-Casa da Moeda, 1986.
Very extensive treatment of arts related to horsemanship, covers jousting
and tilting and quite an extent, has a section on mounted swordplay. Only
a small portion of this has been translated, the translated text and associated
analysis comprises the latter portion of Barber and Barker's Tournaments.
Other small portions have been translated and published by Professor Anglo
in his article "How to Win at Tournaments", Sydney Anglo; 'Jousting-the
Earliest Treatises'; Livrustkammaren. Journal of the Royal Armoury (1991-1992);
and in his book "The Martial Arts of Renaissance Europe
Duarte, King of Portugal, 1391-1438. Livro dos conselhos de el-Rei D.
Duarte : (livro da cartuxa) / transcricao de Joao Jose Alves Dias , introducao
de A.H. de Oliveira Marques e Joao Jose Alves Dias , revisao de A.H. de
Oliveira Marques e Teresa F. Rodrigues., Ed. diplomatica., Lisboa : Editorial
Another work containing portions of Bem Cavlagar, Duarte's other work
Leal conselheiro and a section on how to train.
Noel. Un texto inedito sobre la caballeria del Renacimiento espanol: Doctrina
del arte de la caualleria, de Juan Quijada de Reayo. Hispanic Studies
TRAC (Textual Research and Criticism) Volume 14. Liverpool: Liverpool
University Press, 1996.
First published in 1548, this is a manual on heavy cavalry, with emphasis
on tilting in the lists, also the difference between fighting for sport
and fighting in combat. The book includes extremely detailed technical
advice on the art of jousting. Also includes an Appendix in the form of
a catalog of all known Spanish military manuals printed in the 16th century.
Like Chacon (above) this is the first technical manual of its kind in
Spain, with emphasis on technical expertise as opposed to moral or ethical
Fallows, Noel. The Chivalric Vision of Alfonso de Cartagena: Study and
Edition of the “Doctrinal de los caualleros. Newark, Delaware: Juan de
la Cuesta, 1995.
Critical edition of one of the most comprehensive chivalric manuals of
the middle ages. Composed circa 1444 by by Alfonso de Cartagena, Bishop
of Burgos. Book III is devoted to tournaments.
Froissart, Jean. Chronicles.
A classic account of the chivalric culture of the 14th century. There
are many editions in French and English.
Froissart, Jean. Chroniques, 15 vols. (Paris, 1869-). The most authoritative
edition, from the Societe de l'Histoire de France, in progress.
Froissart, Jean. Oeuvres, ed. Kervyn de Lettenhove, 28 vols. (Brussels,
Froissart, Jean. Chroniques, ed. J.A.C Buchon, 3 vols. (Paris, 1840) The
primary source for the Penguin translation.
Froissart, Jean. Chronicles (Harmondsworth, 1978). This is the abridged
Penguin translation, which includes a long description of a tournament
at St. Inglevert on pp. 373-381.
Froissart, Jean. Chronicles of England, France, Spain, and the adjoining
countries from the latter part of the reign of Edward II to the Coronation
of Henry IV , trans. Thomas Johnes, 2 vols. (London, 1849). This is the
most recent unabridged translation of Froissart (though there are later
printings). The most important formal deeds of arms can be found at the
Tales from Froissart site, in the Index of Deeds of Arms, Tournaments,
There is also a famous 16th century English translation of Froissart by
Lord Berners in a variety of editions.
Henri de Laon. Le Dit des herauts.
Edited in Langfors, A. "Le Dit des herauts par Henri de Laon,"
Romania 43 (1914). See also Keen, Chivalry, p. 88.
de Lena, Pero Rodriguez. El passo honroso de Suero de Quinones, ed. Amancio
Labandeira (Madrid: Fundacion Universitaria Espana, 1977).
A 15th century chronicle of a passage of Arms on the Bridge at Obrigo.
Suero and his ten companions, to prove his chivalric love of a lady, broke
over three hundred lances.
Rene d'Anjou. Traictie de la forme et devise d'ung tournoy.
A book on how to put on a tournament, written in 1460 by a royal patron
of tournaments . The text can be found in an appendix of F.H. Cripps-Day,
The History of the Tournament (London, 1918).
Rene's Tournament Book, tr. E. Bennett (n.p., 1992) is an English
translation; the paper edition is now of out of print, but an electronic
version can now be found at http://www.princeton.edu/~ezb/rene/renehome.html.
Noel, Alix Planche, and Francoise Robin, Le roi Rene; le prince, le mecene,
l'ecrivain, le mythe (Aix-en-Provence, 1982). A study of all aspects of
Sandoz, Edouard. "Tourneys in the Arthurian Tradition," Speculum
19 (1944): 389-420.
An edition of a late fifteenth-century treatise describing how tournaments
were conducted in the time of Uther Pendragon and Arthur: La form quon
tenoit des tournoys et assemblees au temps du uterpendragon et du roy
artus... It includes the arms of 150 knights of the Round Table (emblazoned,
i.e. sketched, in the article).
Sarasin, Sarasin: Le Roman du Ham ed. A. Henry (Paris, 1939).
"Le Roman du Hem" ed. F. Michel in Histoire des Ducs de Normandie
et des Rois d'Angleterre SHF (Paris, 1840).
A poetic account of a tournament of 1278. It is briefly discussed in Maurice
Keen's Chivalry, p. 93, and in Juliet Vale's Edward III and Chivalry,
Ulrich von Liechtenstein. Frauendienst, ed. R. Bechstein (Leipzig, 1888).
Ulrich von Liechtenstein was a thirteenth-century Styrian knight who wrote
a long poem about two great jousting tours that he made, one dressed as
Frau Venus and the other as King Arthur. Scholars still debate whether
this is an early work of autobiography or an early novel in verse.
J.W. Ulrich von Liechtenstein's Service of Ladies (Chapel Hill, 1969)
is a partial translation which omits many of the original's descriptions
of tournaments. The account of the "Venus journey" is on pp.
98-179. This is more a humorous and affectionate evocation of jousting
than a realistic and detailed account.