Secondary Materials

Anglo, Sidney. "How to win at tournaments: the technique of chivalric combat," The Antiquaries Journal 68 (1988): 248-264.

Anglo, Sydney. "Le Jeu de la Hache. A Fifteenth-Century Treatise on the Teaching of Chivalric Axe Combat" Archaeologia 109 (1991) 113-28

Barber, Richard W. and Juliet Barker. Tournaments: Jousts, Chivalry and Pageants in the Middle Ages (N.Y., 1989).
Thorough, well-written, and extraordinarily well illustrated.

Barker, Juliet. The Tournament in England 1100-1400 (Woodbridge, 1986).

Benson, Larry D. "The Tournament in the Romances of Chretien de Troyes & L'Histoire de Guillaume Le Marechal," in Chivalric literature : essays on relations between literature & life in the later Middle Ages, ed. Larry D. Benson and John Leyerle. Studies in medieval culture 14 (Kalamazoo, Mich: Medieval Institute Publications, 1980). Reprinted in Contradictions: from Beowulf to Chaucer: selected studies of Larry D. Benson, ed. Theodore M. Andersson and Stephen A. Barney. (Aldershot, Hants, England: Scolar Press; Brookfield, Vt.: Ashgate Pub. Co., 1995.) On-line at the Harvard Geoffrey Chaucer page.

Clephan, R. Coltman. The Medieval Tournament (New York, 1995).
The original edition of 1919 was entitled The Tournament: its Periods and Phases. The scholarship is out of date, but the book includes useful excerpts from original sources.
Cripps-Day, F.H. The History of the Tournament (London, 1918; reprint New York, 1982). Scholarship out of date, but recommended for its appendices of original documents.
Denholm-Young, N. "The Tournament in the Thirteenth Century," in Studies in Medieval History Presented to Frederick Maurice Powicke, ed. R.W. Hunt, W.H. Pantin, and R.W. Southern (Oxford, 1948).

Fallows, Noel. "Just Say No? Alfonso de Cartagena, the Doctrinal de los caballeros, and Spain's Most Noble Pastime," in Medieval Studies in Honor of Charles F. Fraker. ed. Mercedes Vaquero and Alan Deyermond (Madison: Hispanic Seminary of Medieval Studies, 1995) pp. 129-141.

Fallows, Noel. "La guerra, la paz y la vida caballeresca segun las cronicas castellanas medievales," in Discursos y representaciones en la Edad Media (Actas de las VI Jornadas Medievales). Ed. Lillian von der Walde Moheno, Concepcion Company, Aurelio Gonzalez. Mexico: Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico y el Colegio de Mexico, 1999. 367-77.
Includes some references to jousting as described in Spanish chronicles.

Fallows, Noel. "Knighthood, Wounds, and the Chivalric Ideal in Medieval Spain," In Chivalry, Knighthood, and War in the Middle Ages. Ed. Susan J. Ridyard. Sewanee Medi?val Studies 9. Sewanee: The University of the South, 1999. 117-36.
Analysis of various horrific accidents in the lists, 'cults' of wounds, etc.

Fallows, Noel. "Un debate caballeresco del Renacimiento espanol: ‘caballeros estradiotes’ y ‘caballeros jinetes,’" Insula. Revista de Letras y Ciencias Humanas 584-585 (agosto - septiembre 1995): 15-17.
Discusses light and heavy cavalry ('genitaires' and 'stradiots') and the most appropriate (sporting) situations for both riding styles

Fleckenstein, Josef, ed. Das ritterliche Turnier im Mittelalter: Beitrage zu einer vergleichenden Formen und Verhaltungeschichte des Rittertums (Veroffentlichungen des Max-Planck-Instituts fur Geschichte 80, Gottingen 1985).

Gaier, C. "Technique des combats singuliers d'apres les auteurs 'bourguignons' du XVe siecle," Le Moyen age, 91 (1985): 415-457; 9 (1986): 5-40.
Discusses formal single combats as seen in the Burgundian writers. The emphasis is particularly on the period 1440-70.

Gaucher, Elisabeth. "Les joutes de Saint-Inglevert: perception et ecriture d'un evenement historique pendant la guerre de Cent Ans," Le Moyen age, 102 (1996): 229-243.
Discusses the five accounts of the great deed of arms of 1390, and the differences between them.

Gravett, Christopher. Knights at Tournament (London, 1988). Published by Osprey Publishing Ltd., London, and thus widely available.

Harvey, Ruth. Moriz von Craun and the Chivalric World (Oxford 1911) (especially chapters III and IV).

Jackson, William Henry. "The Tournament and Chivalry in German Tournament Books of the Sixteenth Century and in the Literary Works of Emperor Maximilian I," in The Ideals and Practice of Medieval Knighthood: papers from the first and second Strawberry Hill conferences, ed. Christopher Harper-Bill and Ruth Harvey (Woodbridge: Boydell Press, 1986), pp. 49-73.

Jourdan, J.P. "La Theme du Pas et l'Emprise," Ethnologie francaise, 22 (1992): 172-84.
Concentrates on the very late 14th century and the fifteenth century. Relies on the concept of limited combat, as symbolized and actualized in the restricted space where a Pas takes place.

Keen, Maurice. Chivalry (New Haven, 1984), pp. 83-101.

Loomis, R.S. "Chivalric and Dramatic Imitations of Arthurian Romance," in Medieval Studies in Memory of A.K. Porter (Cambridge, Mass. 1939).

Loomis, R.S. "Edward I: Arthurian Enthusiast," Speculum 28 (1953): 118-9.

Rangstroem, Lena, ed. Riddarlek och Tornerspel -- Tournaments and the Dream of Chivalry (Royal Armoury, Stockholm, 1992).
A catalog from an exhibition held at the Royal Armoury, including descriptions of pieces and a set of short articles focusing on specific aspects of the tournament. Much of the book is devoted to 17th and 18th century developments. Text in both Swedish and English.
Vale, Juliet. Edward III and Chivalry: Chivalric Society and its Context, 1270-1350 (Woodbridge: Boydell Press, 1982).

Young, Alan. Tudor and Jacobean Tournaments (London 1987).

Texts and Original Sources

L'Histoire Guillaume le Mareschal, ed. P. Meyer (Paris, 1901).
An Old French biography of William Marshal, the great tournament champion of the twelfth century, written for his followers shortly after his death in 1219. William Marshal's political importance and the unique qualities of the biography have produced an abundant literature:

Crossland, Jessie. William the Marshal: The Last Great Feudal Baron (London, 1962). Meant as a free translation and interpretation of the 13th c. original. Includes some detailed anecdotes from the History.

Crouch, David. William Marshal: Court, Career, and Chivalry in the Angevin Empire 1147-1219 (London, 1990). See especially pp. 171-184. Of William Marshal's modern biographers, Crouch is the least interested in his subject's career as a tourneyer. Rather, he sees the Marshal as an outstanding practitioner of 12th century "courtesy," the art of maneuvering in the envious and dangerous environment of the court. Crouch criticizes previous biographers of the Marshal for being too romantic.

Duby, Georges. William Marshal: Flower of Chivalry (New York, 1985). Duby was a leading scholar of the twelfth-century French-speaking aristocracy; however this book has attracted a good deal of criticism.

Duby, Georges. "Youth in Aristocratic Society," in The Chivalrous Society, tr. Cynthia Postan (Berkeley, 1980), pp. 112-122. One of Duby's most important discussions of the social environment in which the tournament became a prominent social custom.

Esmark, Kim. "Man of Honor - Aspects of Medieval Knightly Identity in the Verse Biography of William the Marshal," in The Birth of Identities, ed. Brian McGuire (Copenhagen, 1996). A discussion of how knightly identities were forged in the public eye, in tournament and otherwise.

Gillingham, John. "War and Chivalry in the History of William the Marshal," in Thirteenth Century England II, ed. P.R. Coss and S.D. Lloyd (Woodbridge: Boydell Press, 1988), pp. 1-13. A critique of earlier scholarship on the Marshal.

Jarman, T.L. William Marshal, First Earl of Pembroke and Regent of England (Oxford, 1930). I have not read this work.

Painter, Sidney. William Marshal: Knight-Errant, Baron, and Regent of England. (1933; reprint, Toronto, 1982). An old but still valuable investigation of every aspect of William Marshal's career.

Bretel, Jacques. Le Tournoi de Chauvency, ed. M. Delbouille (Liege, 1932).
A poetic account of a tournament held in October, 1285. It is briefly discussed in Maurice Keen's Chivalry, pp. 93-94, and Juliet Vale's Edward III and Chivalry, pp. 5-12.

Chacon, Hernan. Tractado de la caualleria de la gineta. Introduction, Text and Notes, Bibliography, Lexicographical Index., ed. Noel Fallows. Exeter Hispanic Texts 55. Exeter: University of Exeter Press, 1999. xli + 60 pp.
First published in 1551, this is a manual on light cavalry, with emphasis on sports such as 'sports with canes', bullfighting on horseback, etc. Detailed technical advice.

Diaz de Gamez, Gutierre. El victorial: cronica de don Pero Nino (Madrid, 1989).
A 15th century biography of a famous Spanish knight, which includes some descriptions Spanish and French tournaments he attended.

Diaz de Gamez, Gutierre. The Unconquered Knight: A Chronicle of the Deeds of Don Pero Nino (London, 1928). A partial English translation. It includes these descriptions of tournaments:
pp. 39-40: King Enrique of Castile honors the feast of the Church with festivals, including jousts, tourney and sports with canes.
pp. 142- 148: Pero Nino takes parts in French jousts, which are described in some detail.
pp. 149-154: Pero Nino is invited to help represent the Duke of Orleans' household in a challenge against champions of the Duke of Burgundy. This politically-charged but tournament-like event is forbidden by the King of France.
Duarte, King of Portugal. Livro da ensinanca de bem cavalgar; por Joseph M. Piel. [Lisbon] : Impr. Nacional-Casa da Moeda, 1986.
Very extensive treatment of arts related to horsemanship, covers jousting and tilting and quite an extent, has a section on mounted swordplay. Only a small portion of this has been translated, the translated text and associated analysis comprises the latter portion of Barber and Barker's Tournaments. Other small portions have been translated and published by Professor Anglo in his article "How to Win at Tournaments", Sydney Anglo; 'Jousting-the Earliest Treatises'; Livrustkammaren. Journal of the Royal Armoury (1991-1992); and in his book "The Martial Arts of Renaissance Europe
Duarte, King of Portugal, 1391-1438. Livro dos conselhos de el-Rei D. Duarte : (livro da cartuxa) / transcricao de Joao Jose Alves Dias , introducao de A.H. de Oliveira Marques e Joao Jose Alves Dias , revisao de A.H. de Oliveira Marques e Teresa F. Rodrigues., Ed. diplomatica., Lisboa : Editorial Estampa, 1982
Another work containing portions of Bem Cavlagar, Duarte's other work Leal conselheiro and a section on how to train.

Fallows, Noel. Un texto inedito sobre la caballeria del Renacimiento espanol: Doctrina del arte de la caualleria, de Juan Quijada de Reayo. Hispanic Studies TRAC (Textual Research and Criticism) Volume 14. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1996.
First published in 1548, this is a manual on heavy cavalry, with emphasis on tilting in the lists, also the difference between fighting for sport and fighting in combat. The book includes extremely detailed technical advice on the art of jousting. Also includes an Appendix in the form of a catalog of all known Spanish military manuals printed in the 16th century. Like Chacon (above) this is the first technical manual of its kind in Spain, with emphasis on technical expertise as opposed to moral or ethical concerns

Fallows, Noel. The Chivalric Vision of Alfonso de Cartagena: Study and Edition of the “Doctrinal de los caualleros. Newark, Delaware: Juan de la Cuesta, 1995.
Critical edition of one of the most comprehensive chivalric manuals of the middle ages. Composed circa 1444 by by Alfonso de Cartagena, Bishop of Burgos. Book III is devoted to tournaments.

Froissart, Jean. Chronicles.
A classic account of the chivalric culture of the 14th century. There are many editions in French and English.
French editions:
Froissart, Jean. Chroniques, 15 vols. (Paris, 1869-). The most authoritative edition, from the Societe de l'Histoire de France, in progress.
Froissart, Jean. Oeuvres, ed. Kervyn de Lettenhove, 28 vols. (Brussels, 1867-1877).
Froissart, Jean. Chroniques, ed. J.A.C Buchon, 3 vols. (Paris, 1840) The primary source for the Penguin translation.
English translations:
Froissart, Jean. Chronicles (Harmondsworth, 1978). This is the abridged Penguin translation, which includes a long description of a tournament at St. Inglevert on pp. 373-381.
Froissart, Jean. Chronicles of England, France, Spain, and the adjoining countries from the latter part of the reign of Edward II to the Coronation of Henry IV , trans. Thomas Johnes, 2 vols. (London, 1849). This is the most recent unabridged translation of Froissart (though there are later printings). The most important formal deeds of arms can be found at the Tales from Froissart site, in the Index of Deeds of Arms, Tournaments, and Duels.
There is also a famous 16th century English translation of Froissart by Lord Berners in a variety of editions.

Henri de Laon. Le Dit des herauts.
Edited in Langfors, A. "Le Dit des herauts par Henri de Laon," Romania 43 (1914). See also Keen, Chivalry, p. 88.

de Lena, Pero Rodriguez. El passo honroso de Suero de Quinones, ed. Amancio Labandeira (Madrid: Fundacion Universitaria Espana, 1977).
A 15th century chronicle of a passage of Arms on the Bridge at Obrigo. Suero and his ten companions, to prove his chivalric love of a lady, broke over three hundred lances.
Rene d'Anjou. Traictie de la forme et devise d'ung tournoy.
A book on how to put on a tournament, written in 1460 by a royal patron of tournaments . The text can be found in an appendix of F.H. Cripps-Day, The History of the Tournament (London, 1918).

King Rene's Tournament Book, tr. E. Bennett (n.p., 1992) is an English translation; the paper edition is now of out of print, but an electronic version can now be found at

Coulet, Noel, Alix Planche, and Francoise Robin, Le roi Rene; le prince, le mecene, l'ecrivain, le mythe (Aix-en-Provence, 1982). A study of all aspects of Rene's life.

Sandoz, Edouard. "Tourneys in the Arthurian Tradition," Speculum 19 (1944): 389-420.
An edition of a late fifteenth-century treatise describing how tournaments were conducted in the time of Uther Pendragon and Arthur: La form quon tenoit des tournoys et assemblees au temps du uterpendragon et du roy artus... It includes the arms of 150 knights of the Round Table (emblazoned, i.e. sketched, in the article).

Sarasin, Sarasin: Le Roman du Ham ed. A. Henry (Paris, 1939).

Sarrazin, "Le Roman du Hem" ed. F. Michel in Histoire des Ducs de Normandie et des Rois d'Angleterre SHF (Paris, 1840).
A poetic account of a tournament of 1278. It is briefly discussed in Maurice Keen's Chivalry, p. 93, and in Juliet Vale's Edward III and Chivalry, pp. 12-16.
Ulrich von Liechtenstein. Frauendienst, ed. R. Bechstein (Leipzig, 1888).
Ulrich von Liechtenstein was a thirteenth-century Styrian knight who wrote a long poem about two great jousting tours that he made, one dressed as Frau Venus and the other as King Arthur. Scholars still debate whether this is an early work of autobiography or an early novel in verse.

Thomas, J.W. Ulrich von Liechtenstein's Service of Ladies (Chapel Hill, 1969) is a partial translation which omits many of the original's descriptions of tournaments. The account of the "Venus journey" is on pp. 98-179. This is more a humorous and affectionate evocation of jousting than a realistic and detailed account.

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