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CLAUDE DELAVAL COBHAM
Exerpta Cypria
page 204

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a name to the island. It is now called Cerines. It has many inhabitants, and is remarkable for a solid and impregnable fortress built by the ljiisignan kings, which still holds a strong Turkish garrison. Lapheto or Lapithus, a royal residence, built by the Lacedaemonians, and famous for its port and docks, about twelve miles from Ceraunium. A small village, with most fruitful soil, abounding in cotton, sugar, lemons and oranges, keeps the old name. Soloe, a royal capital, built, as some say, by Solon, is now a village called tìolia, situated on the north coast half-way between Cormachiti and the point of Alexandreta. Strabo sajs it was formerly called Solum, that it had a river and harbour, and a shrine of Venus and Isis: that the Athenians Phalerus and Acamas founded it, and that its inhabitants were called Solii. Arsinoe took its name from Arsinoe, sister of Ptolenueus Lagus, king of Egypt. The modem village is cfdled Crusocus. It was chiefly noted for its mines of gold, chrysoeolla {carbonate of copper ?) and vitriol. Others suppose that the village of Lefcara occupies the site of Arsinoe. The sites of the other cities are unknown or nncertain. Besides those we have mentioned Aphrodisium, Idalium, Cent ria, Tremithus, Cyniria, Acte, Macaria, were notable towns, aud many others. All of them are turned to dust, so that scarcely any memory of them survives. In our day, of so many towns two only, Lencosia and Famagosta, are standing. So has nature ordained that change aud chance reign always and everywhere : nothing under the sun is stable and lasting, what is bom must die. So that it need not seem wonderful to anyone that, as in the other islands of the Mediterranean, so in Cyprus also, few or no traces are left of the cities which were once so famous. These have sunk into obscurity, and others have taken their places and survive, as is the case with Lencosia (commonly called Licosia or Nicosia) and Famagosta, supposed to be the old Leucata and Arsinoe. And as the face of the land has changed so have its fortune and its masters often varied. The kings, of whom tradition says there were nine, were expelled, and the island seized by Cyras, king of the Assyrians. Then it fell to Greek tyrants. It remained long under the sway of Ptolemœus and Demetrius, kings of Egypt and Syria. P. Clodius the tribune wrested it without blood-shed from Ptolemauis, and added it to the Roman Empire. When that tottered to its fall Cyprus passed to the Greek Emperors, who set up Dukes there and ruled it for many years. Their tyranny long oppressed it until Richard, king of England, who with his fleet was on his way to fight tho Saracens at Jerusalem, was refused by the Duke Isaac Comnenns the shelter of its ports, and otherwise insulted. Incensed at these indignities Richard landed in force, seized the island, harried it in eveiy quarter, and with extraordinary speed subjected the whole to his victorious arms, and placed strong garrisons of his own men in the captured cities. Later he sold it to Guy de Lusignan, king of Jerusalem, who had been expelled by the Saracens, and assumed in exchange the royal title of Jerusalem, which he handed down to his successors on the English throne. Lusignan brought a suite of French nobles, and made Cyprus a French colony. Then it was made tributaiy to the Sultans of Cairo; and on the extinction of the Lusignan kings, who had ruled it for 2S3 years, it passed to the Venetians. It is said that they received annually from salt and taxes 50,000 scmli, and gained as much again from merchandise taken in exchange aud carried to Venice. But the Venetians were expelled in 1571 by the Tnrks, and Cyprus fell under the Ottomans, who still rule there. It was formerly divided into fonr regions, called from Salamis, Faphos, Amathns. and Lapithos, but now into ten districts, Faphos, Aydimo, Limisso, Masoto, Salines and Messarea. 194 EXCERPTA CYPRIA.

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